Eplerenone: Package Insert and Label Information

EPLERENONE- eplerenone tablet, film coated
Slate Run Pharmaceuticals, LLC

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

Eplerenone tablets is indicated to improve survival of stable patients with symptomatic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (≤40%) (HFrEF) after an acute myocardial infarction (MI).

1.2 Hypertension

Eplerenone tablets is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular (CV) events, primarily strokes and MI. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes.

Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive CV risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).

Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce CV morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent CV outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in MI and CV mortality also have been seen regularly.

Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased CV risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.

Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.

Eplerenone tablets may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

Initiate treatment at 25 mg once daily and titrate to the recommended dose of 50 mg once daily, preferably within 4 weeks as tolerated by the patient.

Once treatment with eplerenone tablets has begun, adjust the dose based on the serum potassium level as shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Dose Adjustment in Heart Failure Post-MI

Serum Potassium (mEq/L)

Dose Adjustment

<5.0

25 mg every other day to 25 mg once daily

25 mg once daily to 50 mg once daily

5.0–5.4

No adjustment

5.5–5.9

50 mg once daily to 25 mg once daily

25 mg once daily to 25 mg every other day

25 mg every other day to withhold

≥6.0

Withhold and restart at 25 mg every other day when potassium levels fall to <5.5 mEq/L

2.2 Hypertension

The recommended starting dose of eplerenone tablets is 50 mg administered once daily. The full therapeutic effect of eplerenone tablets is apparent within 4 weeks. For patients with an inadequate blood pressure response to 50 mg once daily increase the dosage of eplerenone tablets to 50 mg twice daily. Higher dosages of eplerenone tablets are not recommended because they have no greater effect on blood pressure than 100 mg and are associated with an increased risk of hyperkalemia [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].

2.3 Recommended Monitoring

Measure serum potassium before initiating eplerenone tablets therapy, within the first week, and at one month after the start of treatment or dose adjustment. Assess serum potassium periodically thereafter.

Check serum potassium and serum creatinine within 3-7 days of a patient initating a moderate CYP3A inhibitor ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-II blockers or non-steroidal-anti-inflammatories.

2.4 Dose Modification for Use with Moderate CYP3A Inhibitors

In post-MI HFrEF patients receiving a moderate CYP3A inhibitor (e.g., erythromycin, saquinavir, verapamil, and fluconazole), do not exceed 25 mg once daily. In patients with hypertension receiving a moderate CYP3A inhibitor, initiate at 25 mg once daily. For inadequate blood pressure response, dosing may be increased to a maximum of 25 mg twice daily [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

25 mg tablets: White to off-white, round shaped, biconvex, film coated tablet, debossed with “EP” on one side and “25” on other side.
50 mg tablets: Light yellow to yellow, round shaped, biconvex, film coated tablet, debossed with “EP” on one side and “50” on other side.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

For All Patients

Eplerenone tablets is contraindicated in all patients with:

serum potassium >5.5 mEq/L at initiation,
creatinine clearance ≤30 mL/min, or
concomitant administration of strong CYP3A inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, nefazodone, troleandomycin, clarithromycin, ritonavir, and nelfinavir) [see Drug Interactions (7.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

For Patients Treated for Hypertension

Eplerenone tablets is contraindicated for the treatment of hypertension in patients with:

type 2 diabetes with microalbuminuria,
serum creatinine >2.0 mg/dL in males or >1.8 mg/dL in females,
creatinine clearance <50 mL/min, or
concomitant administration of potassium supplements or potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g., amiloride, spironolactone, or triamterene) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Adverse Reactions (6.2), Drug Interactions (7), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Hyperkalemia

The risk of hyperkalemia is higher in patients with impaired renal function, proteinuria, diabetes and those concomitantly treated with ACEs, ARBs, NSAIDs and moderate CYP3A inhibitors. Minimize the risk of hyperkalemia with proper patient selection and monitoring [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Contraindications (4), Adverse Reactions (6.2), and Drug Interactions (7)]. Monitor patients for the development of hyperkalemia until the effect of eplerenone tablets is established. Patients who develop hyperkalemia (5.5-5.9 mEq/L) may continue eplerenone tablets therapy with proper dose adjustment. Dose reduction decreases potassium levels. Patients on moderate CYP3A inhibitors that cannot be avoided should have their dose of eplerenone reduced [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

Hyperkalemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

In EPHESUS, safety was evaluated in 3307 patients treated with eplerenone tablets and 3301 placebo-treated patients. The overall incidence of adverse events reported with eplerenone tablets (78.9%) was similar to placebo (79.5%). Adverse events occurred at a similar rate regardless of age, gender, or race. Patients discontinued treatment due to an adverse event at similar rates in either treatment group (4.4% eplerenone tablets vs. 4.3% placebo), with the most common reasons for discontinuation being hyperkalemia, MI, and abnormal renal function.

Adverse reactions that occurred more frequently in patients treated with eplerenone tablets than placebo were hyperkalemia (3.4% vs. 2.0%) and increased creatinine (2.4% vs. 1.5%). Discontinuations due to hyperkalemia or abnormal renal function were less than 1.0% in both groups.

Hypertension

Eplerenone tablets has been evaluated for safety in 3091 patients treated for hypertension. A total of 690 patients were treated for over 6 months and 106 patients were treated for over 1 year.

In placebo-controlled studies, the overall rates of adverse events were 47% with eplerenone tablets and 45% with placebo. Adverse events occurred at a similar rate regardless of age, gender, or race. Therapy was discontinued due to an adverse event in 3% of patients treated with eplerenone tablets and 3% of patients given placebo. The most common reasons for discontinuation of eplerenone tablets were headache, dizziness, angina pectoris/MI, and increased GGT.

Gynecomastia and abnormal vaginal bleeding were reported with eplerenone tablets but not with placebo. The rates increased with increasing duration of therapy.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of eplerenone tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Skin: angioneurotic edema, rash

6.3 Clinical Laboratory Test Findings

Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

Creatinine: Increases of more than 0.5 mg/dL were reported for 6.5% of patients administered eplerenone tablets and for 4.9% of placebo-treated patients.

Potassium: In EPHESUS [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] , the frequencies of patients with changes in potassium (<3.5 mEq/L or >5.5 mEq/L or ≥6.0 mEq/L) receiving eplerenone tablets compared with placebo are displayed in Table 2.

Table 2. Hypokalemia (<3.5 mEq/L) or Hyperkalemia
(>5.5 or ≥6.0 mEq/L) in EPHESUS
Potassium (mEq/L)
Eplerenone Tablets
(N=3251)
n (%)
Placebo
(N=3237)
n (%)
<3.5
273 (8.4)
424 (13.1)
>5.5
508 (15.6)
363 (11.2)
≥6.0
180 (5.5)
126 (3.9)

Rates of hyperkalemia increased with decreasing renal function.

Table 3. Rates of Hyperkalemia ( >5.5 mEq/L)

in EPHESUS by Baseline Creatinine Clearance*

Baseline Creatinine Clearance
Eplerenone Tablets
(N=508)
n (%)
Placebo
(N=363)
n (%)
≤30 mL/min
160 (32)
82 (23)
31–50 mL/min
122 (24)
46 (13)
51–70 mL/min
86 (17)
48 (13)
>70 mL/min
56 (11)
32 (9)

* Estimated using the Cockroft-Gault formula.

The rates of hyperkalemia in EPHESUS in the eplerenone tablets treated group vs. placebo were increased in patients with proteinuria (16% vs 11%), diabetes (18% vs. 13%) or both (26% vs. 16%).

Hypertension

Potassium: In placebo-controlled fixed-dose studies, the mean increases in serum potassium were dose- related and are shown in Table 4 along with the frequencies of values >5.5 mEq/L.

Table 4. Increases in Serum Potassium in the Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose Hypertension Studies of Eplerenone Tablets

Mean Increase mEq/L
% >5.5 mEq/L
Daily Dosage
n
Placebo
194
0
1
25
97
0.08
0
50
245
0.14
0
100
193
0.09
1
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