DUAKLIR PRESSAIR: Package Insert and Label Information

DUAKLIR PRESSAIR- aclidinium bromide and formoterol fumarate powder, metered
Circassia Pharmaceuticals Inc.


DUAKLIR PRESSAIR is a combination of aclidinium bromide (an anticholinergic) and formoterol fumarate (a LABA) indicated for the maintenance treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Limitations of Use: DUAKLIR PRESSAIR is not indicated for the relief of acute bronchospasm or for the treatment of asthma [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.4)].


The recommended dose of DUAKLIR PRESSAIR is one oral inhalation of 400 mcg/12 mcg, twice daily (once in the morning and once in the evening). Do not take more than one inhalation twice daily.


Inhalation Powder. DUAKLIR PRESSAIR is a breath-actuated multi-dose dry powder inhaler metering 400 mcg of aclidinium bromide and 12 mcg of formoterol fumarate per actuation.


Use of a long-acting beta2 -adrenergic agonist (LABA), including formoterol fumarate, one of the active ingredients in DUAKLIR PRESSAIR, without an inhaled corticosteroid is contraindicated in patients with asthma [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. DUAKLIR PRESSAIR is not indicated for the treatment of asthma.

DUAKLIR PRESSAIR is contraindicated in patients with:

Severe hypersensitivity to milk proteins [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Hypersensitivity to aclidinium bromide, formoterol fumarate, or to any component of the product [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].


5.1 Serious Asthma-Related Events-Hospitalizations, Intubations, Death

The safety and efficacy of DUAKLIR PRESSAIR in patients with asthma have not been established. DUAKLIR PRESSAIR is not indicated for the treatment of asthma. [see Contraindications (4)].
Use of LABA as monotherapy [without inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)] for asthma is associated with an increased risk of asthma-related death. Available data from controlled clinical trials also suggest that use of LABA as monotherapy increases the risk of asthma-related hospitalization in pediatric and adolescent patients. These findings are considered a class effect of LABA monotherapy. When LABA are used in fixed-dose combination with ICS, data from large clinical trials do not show a significant increase in the risk of serious asthma-related events (hospitalizations, intubations, death) compared with ICS alone.
A 28-week, placebo-controlled, U.S. trial comparing the safety of another LABA (salmeterol) with placebo, each added to usual asthma therapy, showed an increase in asthma-related deaths in subjects receiving salmeterol (13/13,176 in subjects treated with salmeterol vs 3/13,179 in subjects treated with placebo; relative risk: 4.37 [95% CI: 1.25, 15.34]). The increased risk of asthma-related death is considered a class effect of LABAs, including formoterol fumarate, one of the active ingredients in DUAKLIR PRESSAIR.
No trial adequate to determine whether the rate of asthma-related deaths is increased in subjects treated with DUAKLIR PRESSAIR has been conducted.
Available data do not suggest an increased risk of death with use of LABA in patients with COPD.

5.2 Deterioration of Disease and Acute Episodes

DUAKLIR PRESSAIR should not be initiated in patients with acutely deteriorating COPD, which may be a life-threatening condition. DUAKLIR PRESSAIR has not been studied in patients with acutely deteriorating COPD. The use of DUAKLIR PRESSAIR in this setting is inappropriate.

DUAKLIR PRESSAIR is intended as twice daily maintenance treatment for COPD and should not be used for the relief of acute symptoms, i.e., as rescue therapy for treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm. DUAKLIR PRESSAIR has not been studied in the relief of acute symptoms and extra doses should not be used for that purpose. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled short-acting beta2 -agonist.

When beginning treatment with DUAKLIR PRESSAIR, patients who have been taking oral or inhaled, short-acting beta2 -agonists on a regular basis (e.g., four times a day) should be instructed to discontinue the regular use of these drugs and use them only for symptomatic relief of acute respiratory symptoms. When prescribing DUAKLIR PRESSAIR, the healthcare provider should also prescribe an inhaled, short-acting beta2 -agonist and instruct the patient on how it should be used. Increasing inhaled beta2 -agonist use is a signal of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is indicated.

COPD may deteriorate acutely over a period of hours or chronically over several days or longer. If DUAKLIR PRESSAIR no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction; the patient’s inhaled, short-acting beta2 -agonist becomes less effective; or the patient needs more short-acting beta2 -agonist than usual, these may be markers of deterioration of disease. In this setting, a re-evaluation of the patient and the COPD treatment regimen should be undertaken at once. Increasing the daily dose of DUAKLIR PRESSAIR beyond the recommended dose is not appropriate in this situation.

5.3 Excessive Use of DUAKLIR PRESSAIR and Use with Other Long-Acting Beta2 Agonists

As with other inhaled drugs containing beta-agonists, DUAKLIR PRESSAIR should not be used more often than recommended, at higher doses than recommended, or in conjunction with other medications containing LABAs, as an overdose may result. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Patients using DUAKLIR PRESSAIR should not use another medicine containing a LABA for any reason [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

5.4 Paradoxical Bronchospasm

Inhaled medicines, including DUAKLIR PRESSAIR, may cause paradoxical bronchospasm, which may be life threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs following dosing with DUAKLIR PRESSAIR, it should be treated immediately with an inhaled, short acting bronchodilator. DUAKLIR PRESSAIR should be discontinued immediately, and alternative therapies should be instituted.

5.5 Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions

Immediate hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema (including swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat), urticaria, rash, bronchospasm, or itching, have occurred after administration of DUAKLIR PRESSAIR. If such a reaction occurs, therapy with DUAKLIR PRESSAIR should be stopped at once and alternative treatments should be considered.

5.6 Cardiovascular Effects

Formoterol fumarate, like other beta agonists, can produce a clinically significant cardiovascular effect in some patients as measured by increases in pulse rate, systolic or diastolic or blood pressure, or symptoms [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. If such effects occur, DUAKLIR PRESSAIR may need to be discontinued.

In addition, beta-agonists have been reported to produce ECG changes, such as flattening of the T wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression, although the clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Therefore, DUAKLIR PRESSAIR should be used with caution in patients with severe cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension.

5.7 Coexisting Conditions

DUAKLIR PRESSAIR, like other medications containing sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with convulsive disorders, thyrotoxicosis, and in those who are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Doses of the related beta-agonist albuterol, when administered intravenously, have been reported to aggravate pre-existing diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis.

5.8 Hypokalemia and Hyperglycemia

Beta-agonist medications may produce significant hypokalemia in some patients, possibly through intracellular shunting, which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. The decrease in serum potassium is usually transient, not requiring supplementation. Beta-agonist medications may produce transient hyperglycemia in some patients. In 4 clinical trials of 24 to 52 weeks duration evaluating DUAKLIR PRESSAIR in patients with COPD, there was no evidence of a treatment effect on serum glucose or potassium.

5.9 Worsening of Narrow-Angle Glaucoma

DUAKLIR PRESSAIR should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma. Prescribers and patients should be alert for signs and symptoms of acute narrow-angle glaucoma (e.g., eye pain or discomfort, blurred vision, visual halos, or colored images in association with red eyes from conjunctival congestion and corneal edema). Instruct patients to consult a physician immediately should any of these signs or symptoms develop.

5.10 Worsening of Urinary Retention

DUAKLIR PRESSAIR should be used with caution in patients with urinary retention or bladder neck obstruction. Prescribers and patients should be alert for signs and symptoms of urinary retention (e.g., difficulty passing urine, painful urination), especially in patients with prostatic hyperplasia or bladder neck obstruction. Instruct patients to consult a physician immediately should any of these signs or symptoms develop.


LABAs, such as formoterol fumarate, one of the active ingredients in DUAKLIR PRESSAIR, increase the risk of asthma-related death. DUAKLIR PRESSAIR is not indicated for the treatment of asthma [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

The following adverse reactions are described in greater detail elsewhere in the labeling:

Paradoxical bronchospasm [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
Immediate hypersensitivity reactions [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
Cardiovascular effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
Worsening of narrow-angle glaucoma [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
Worsening of urinary retention [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The clinical program for DUAKLIR PRESSAIR included 6501 subjects with COPD in 2 placebo-controlled and 1 active-controlled 24-week lung function trials, one long-term safety extension study of 28 weeks and 2 other clinical trials. A total of 1893 subjects have received at least 1 dose of DUAKLIR PRESSAIR.

24-Week Trials

The frequency of common adverse reactions in Table 1 below is based upon pooled data from two, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group clinical trials (Trials 1 and 2, n=1729 and n=1669) in 3398 adult patients with moderate to severe COPD. Of these, 60% were male and 94% were Caucasian. They had a mean age of 64 years and an average smoking history of 46 pack-years, with 49% identified as current smokers. At screening, the mean post-bronchodilator percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) was 54% (range: 28% to 80%) and the mean percent reversibility was 15% (range: -19% to 69%).

Table 1 shows all adverse reactions that occurred with a frequency of greater than or equal to 3% in the DUAKLIR PRESSAIR group in the two 24-week placebo-controlled trials where the rates in the DUAKLIR PRESSAIR group exceeded placebo.

Table 1: Adverse Reactions with DUAKLIR PRESSAIR ≥3% Incidence and More Common than with Placebo in Subjects with COPD
Includes Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infection and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection


Adverse Reactions

Preferred Term













Upper respiratory tract infection *










Back pain





Other adverse reactions reported in clinical studies with an incidence of >1% but less than 3% with DUAKLIR PRESSAIR but more common than with placebo were cough, sinusitis, influenza, tooth abscess, insomnia, dizziness, dry mouth, oropharyngeal pain, muscle spasms, musculoskeletal pain, arthralgia, pain in extremity, urinary tract infection, and blood creatine phosphokinase increased.

The adverse events reported in the 24-week active-controlled trial were consistent with those observed in 24-week placebo-controlled trials.

Long-Term Safety Extension Trial

In a 28-week safety extension trial, 918 subjects who successfully completed Trial 2 were treated for up to an additional 28 weeks for a total treatment period of up to 52 weeks with DUAKLIR PRESSAIR, aclidinium 400 mcg, formoterol fumarate 12 mcg administered twice daily or placebo. Because the subjects continued from Trial 2 into the safety extension trial, the demographic and baseline characteristics of the long-term safety extension trial were similar to those of the placebo-controlled efficacy trials described above. The adverse reactions reported in the long-term safety trial were consistent with those observed in the 24-week placebo-controlled trials.


No formal drug interaction studies have been performed with DUAKLIR PRESSAIR.

7.1 Adrenergic Drugs

If additional adrenergic drugs are to be administered by any route, they should be used with caution because the sympathetic effects of formoterol, a component of DUAKLIR PRESSAIR, may be potentiated [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

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