Doxorubicin Hydrochloride: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 2 of 5)

5.7 Potentiation of Radiation Toxicity and Radiation Recall

Doxorubicin hydrochloride can increase radiation-induced toxicity to the myocardium, mucosa, skin, and liver. Radiation recall, including but not limited to cutaneous and pulmonary toxicity, can occur in patients who receive doxorubicin hydrochloride after prior radiation therapy.

5.8 Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

Based on findings in animals and its mechanism of action, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman; avoid the use of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection during the 1st trimester. Available human data do not establish the presence or absence of major birth defects and miscarriage related to the use of doxorubicin hydrochloride during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Doxorubicin hydrochloride was teratogenic and embryotoxic in rats and rabbits at doses lower than the recommended human dose. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection and for 6 months after treatment. Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection and for 3 months after treatment. Advise males with pregnant partners to use condoms during treatment with Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection and for at least 10 days after the final dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following clinically significant adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling.

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Breast Cancer

The safety data below were collected from 1492 women who received doxorubicin hydrochloride at a dose of 60 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide at a dose of 600 mg/m2 (AC) every 3 weeks for 4 cycles for the adjuvant treatment of axillary lymph node positive breast cancer. The median number of cycles received was 4. Selected adverse reactions reported in this study are provided in Table 2. No treatment-related deaths were reported in patients on either arm of the study.

Table 2. Selected Adverse Reactions in Patients with Early Breast Cancer Involving Axillary Lymph Nodes

Conventional

Adverse Reactions

AC*

CMF

N=1492

N=739

%

%

Alopecia

92

71

Vomiting

Vomiting ≤12 hours

34

25

Vomiting >12 hours

37

12

Intractable

5

2

Leukopenia

Grade 3 (1,000 to 1,999 /mm3)

3.4

9.4

Grade 4 (<1000 /mm3)

0.3

0.3

Shock, sepsis

2

1

Systemic infection

2

1

Cardiac dysfunction

Asymptomatic

0.2

0.1

Transient

0.1

0

Symptomatic

0.1

0

Thrombocytopenia

Grade 3 (25,000 to 49,999 /mm3)

0

0.3

Grade 4 (<25,000 /mm3)

0.1

0

AC = doxorubicin hydrochloride, cyclophosphamide; CMF = cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil

* Includes pooled data from patients who received either AC for 4 cycles or AC for 4 cycles followed by CMF for 3 cycles

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Cardiac — Cardiogenic shock

Cutaneous — Skin and nail hyperpigmentation, oncolysis, rash, itching, photosensitivity, urticaria, acral erythema, palmar plantar erythrodysesthesia

Gastrointestinal — Nausea, mucositis, stomatitis, necrotizing colitis, typhlitis, gastric erosions, gastrointestinal tract bleeding, hematochezia, esophagitis, anorexia, abdominal pain, dehydration, diarrhea, hyperpigmentation of the oral mucosa

Hypersensitivity — Anaphylaxis

Laboratory Abnormalities — Increased ALT, increased AST

Neurological — Peripheral sensory and motor neuropathy, seizures, coma

Ocular — Conjunctivitis, keratitis, lacrimation

Vascular — Phlebosclerosis, phlebitis/thrombophlebitis, hot flashes, thromboembolism

Other — Malaise/asthenia, fever, chills, weight gain

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Effect of Other Drugs on Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection

Inhibitors of CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-gp

Concomitant use of doxorubicin hydrochloride with inhibitors of CYP3A4, CYP2D6, or P-glycoprotein (P-gp), increased concentrations of doxorubicin hydrochloride, which may increase the incidence and severity of adverse reactions of doxorubicin hydrochloride. Avoid concomitant use of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection with inhibitors of CYP3A4, CYP2D6, or P-gp.

Inducers of CYP3A4, CYP2D6, or P-gp

Concomitant use of doxorubicin hydrochloride with inducers of CYP3A4, CYP2D6, or P-gp may decrease the concentration of doxorubicin hydrochloride. Avoid concomitant use of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection with inducers of CYP3A4, CYP2D6, or P-gp.

Paclitaxel

Paclitaxel, when given prior to doxorubicin hydrochloride, increases the plasma-concentrations of doxorubicin hydrochloride and its metabolites. Administer Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection prior to paclitaxel if used concomitantly.

7.2 Concomitant Use of Trastuzumab

Concomitant use of trastuzumab and doxorubicin hydrochloride results in an increased risk of cardiac dysfunction. Avoid concomitant administration of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection and trastuzumab [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Patients receiving doxorubicin hydrochloride after stopping treatment with trastuzumab may also be at an increased risk of developing cardiotoxicity. Trastuzumab may persist in the circulation for up to 7 months. Therefore, avoid anthracycline-based therapy for up to 7 months after stopping trastuzumab when possible. If anthracyclines are used before this time, carefully monitor cardiac function.

7.3 Concomitant Use of Dexrazoxane

Do not administer dexrazoxane as a cardioprotectant at the initiation of doxorubicin hydrochloride-containing chemotherapy regimens. In a randomized trial in women with metastatic breast cancer, initiation of dexrazoxane with doxorubicin hydrochloride-based chemotherapy resulted in a significantly lower tumor response rate (48% vs. 63%; p=0.007) and shorter time to progression compared to doxorubicin hydrochloride-based chemotherapy alone.

7.4 Concomitant Use of 6-Mercaptopurine

Doxorubicin hydrochloride may potentiate 6-mercaptopurine-induced hepatotoxicity. In 11 patients with refractory leukemia treated with 6-mercaptopurine (500 mg/m2 intravenously daily for 5 days per cycle every 2 to 3 weeks) and doxorubicin hydrochloride (50 mg/m2 intravenous once per cycle every 2 to 3 weeks) alone or with vincristine and prednisone, all developed hepatic dysfunction manifested by increased total serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Based on findings in animals and its mechanism of action, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman; avoid the use of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection during the 1st trimester. Available human data do not establish the presence or absence of major birth defects and miscarriage related to the use of doxorubicin hydrochloride during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Doxorubicin hydrochloride was teratogenic and embryotoxic in rats and embryotoxic in rabbits when administered during organogenesis at doses approximately 0.07 times (based on body surface area) the recommended human dose of 60 mg/m2 (see Data). Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.

In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.

Data

Animal Data

Doxorubicin hydrochloride was teratogenic and embryotoxic at doses of 0.8 mg/kg/day (about 0.07 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) when administered during the period of organogenesis in rats. Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity were also seen using discrete periods of treatment. The most susceptible was the 6- to 9-day gestation period at doses of 1.25 mg/kg/day and greater. Characteristic malformations included esophageal and intestinal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula, hypoplasia of the urinary bladder, and cardiovascular anomalies. Doxorubicin hydrochloride was embryotoxic (increase in embryofetal deaths) and abortifacient at 0.4 mg/kg/day (about 0.07 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) in rabbits when administered during the period of organogenesis.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

Doxorubicin hydrochloride was measured in the milk of one lactating patient after therapy with 70 mg/m2 of doxorubicin hydrochloride given as a 15-minute intravenous infusion. The peak milk concentration at 24 hours after treatment was 4.4-fold greater than the corresponding plasma concentration. Doxorubicin hydrochloride was detectable in the milk up to 72 hours. There are no data on the effects of doxorubicin hydrochloride on the breastfed child or the effects on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in the breastfed child, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection and for 10 days after the final dose.

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

Pregnancy Testing

Verify the pregnancy status of females of reproductive potential prior to initiating Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection.

Contraception

Females

Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection can cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Advise female patients of reproductive potential to use highly effective contraception during treatment with Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection and for 6 months after treatment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

Males

Doxorubicin hydrochloride may damage spermatozoa and testicular tissue, resulting in possible genetic fetal abnormalities. Due to the potential for genotoxicity, advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection and for 3 months after treatment [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]. Males with pregnant partners should use condoms during treatment and for at least 10 days after the final dose [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1), Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

Infertility

Females

In females of reproductive potential, doxorubicin hydrochloride may cause infertility and result in amenorrhea. Premature menopause can occur. Recovery of menses and ovulation is related to age at treatment [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

Males

Doxorubicin hydrochloride may result in oligospermia, azoospermia, and permanent loss of fertility. Sperm counts have been reported to return to normal levels in some men. This may occur several years after the end of therapy [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

8.4 Pediatric Use

Based on postmarketing reports, pediatric patients treated with doxorubicin hydrochloride are at risk for developing late cardiovascular dysfunction. Risk factors include young age at treatment (especially <5 years), high cumulative doses and receipt of combined modality therapy. Long-term periodic cardiovascular monitoring is recommended for all pediatric patients who have received doxorubicin hydrochloride. Doxorubicin hydrochloride, as a component of intensive chemotherapy regimens administered to pediatric patients, may contribute to prepubertal growth failure and may also contribute to gonadal impairment, which is usually temporary.

There are no recommended dose adjustments based on age. Doxorubicin hydrochloride clearance was increased in patients aged 2 years to 20 years as compared to adults, while doxorubicin hydrochloride clearance was similar in infants less than 2 years as compared to adults [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

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