DOXORUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE- doxorubicin hydrochloride injection, solution
Actavis Pharma, Inc.
WARNING: CARDIOMYOPATHY, SECONDARY MALIGNANCIES, EXTRAVASATION AND TISSUE NECROSIS, and SEVERE MYELOSUPPRESSION
- Cardiomyopathy: Myocardial damage, including acute left ventricular failure, can occur with doxorubicin hydrochloride. The risk of cardiomyopathy is proportional to the cumulative exposure with incidence rates from 1% to 20% for cumulative doses ranging from 300 mg/m2 to 500 mg/m2 when doxorubicin hydrochloride is administered every 3 weeks. The risk of cardiomyopathy is further increased with concomitant cardiotoxic therapy. Assess left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) before and regularly during and after treatment with doxorubicin hydrochloride [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
- Secondary Malignancies: Secondary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) occur at a higher incidence in patients treated with anthracyclines, including doxorubicin hydrochloride [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
- Extravasation and Tissue Necrosis: Extravasation of doxorubicin hydrochloride can result in severe local tissue injury and necrosis requiring wide excision of the affected area and skin grafting. Immediately terminate the drug and apply ice to the affected area [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
- Severe myelosuppression resulting in serious infection, septic shock, requirement for transfusions, hospitalization, and death may occur [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection is indicated as a component of multi-agent adjuvant chemotherapy for treatment of women with axillary lymph node involvement following resection of primary breast cancer.
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection is indicated for the treatment of
- acute lymphoblastic leukemia
- acute myeloblastic leukemia
- Hodgkin lymphoma
- non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)
- metastatic breast cancer
- metastatic Wilms’ tumor
- metastatic neuroblastoma
- metastatic soft tissue sarcoma
- metastatic bone sarcoma
- metastatic ovarian carcinoma
- metastatic transitional cell bladder carcinoma
- metastatic thyroid carcinoma
- metastatic gastric carcinoma
- metastatic bronchogenic carcinoma
The recommended dosage of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection is 60 mg/m2 administered as an intravenous bolus on day 1 of each 21-day treatment cycle, in combination with cyclophosphamide, for a total of four cycles.
The recommended dosage of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection when used as a single agent is 60 mg/m2 to 75 mg/m2 intravenously every 21 days.
The recommended dosage of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection when administered in combination with other chemotherapy drugs, is 40 mg/m2 to 75 mg/m2 intravenously every 21 to 28 days.
Consider use of the lower Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection dose in the recommended dosage range or longer intervals between cycles for heavily pretreated patients, elderly patients, or obese patients.
Cumulative doses above 550 mg/m2 are associated with an increased risk of cardiomyopathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Discontinue Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection in patients who develop signs or symptoms of cardiomyopathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C or serum bilirubin greater than 5 mg/dL) [see Contraindications (4)].
Dosage modifications for Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection in patients with elevated serum total bilirubin concentrations [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Use in Specific Populations (8.6)] are provided in Table 1.
Serum total bilirubin concentration
1.2 to 3 mg/dL
3.1 to 5 mg/dL
greater than 5 mg/dL
Do not initiate Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection;
discontinue Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection is a cytotoxic drug. Follow applicable special handling and disposal procedures.1
Dilution of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection
- Dilute Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP or 5% Dextrose Injection, USP.
- Protect from light following preparation until completion of infusion.
- Use within 1 hour. If not used within 1 hour, discard the diluted product.
- Visually inspect for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Discard if the solution is discolored, cloudy, or contains particulate matter.
Administration by Intravenous Injection
- Administer diluted Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection as an intravenous injection through a central intravenous line or a secure and free-flowing peripheral venous line containing 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, or 5% Dextrose Injection, USP.
- Administer intravenously over 3 to 10 minutes. Decrease the rate of infusion if erythematous streaking along the vein proximal to the site of infusion or facial flushing occur.
Administration by Continuous Intravenous Infusion
- Administer Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection solution only through a central intravenous line. Decrease the rate of infusion if erythematous streaking along the vein proximal to the site of infusion or facial flushing occur.
- Protect from light from preparation for infusion until completion of infusion.
Management of Suspected Extravasation
Immediately discontinue Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection for burning or stinging sensation or other evidence indicating perivenous infiltration or extravasation. Manage confirmed or suspected extravasation as follows:
- Do not remove the needle until attempts are made to aspirate extravasated fluid.
- Do not flush the line.
- Avoid applying pressure to the site.
- Apply ice to the site intermittently for 15 minutes, 4 times a day for 3 days.
- If the extravasation is in an extremity, elevate the extremity.
- In adults, consider administration of dexrazoxane [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Management of Contact with Skin or Eyes
Treat accidental contact with the skin or eyes immediately by copious lavage with water, or soap and water, or sodium bicarbonate solution. Do not abrade the skin by using a scrub brush. Seek medical attention.
Incompatibility with Other Drugs
Do not admix Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection with other drugs. If Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection is mixed with heparin or fluorouracil, a precipitate may form. Avoid contact with alkaline solutions which can lead to hydrolysis of doxorubicin hydrochloride.
- Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection, USP:
- 10 mg/5 mL, 20 mg/10 mL and 50 mg/25 mL (2 mg/mL) clear red solution in a single-dose vial
- 200 mg/100 mL (2 mg/mL) clear red solution in a multiple-dose vial
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection is contraindicated in patients with:
- Severe myocardial insufficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Recent (occurring within the past 4 to 6 weeks) myocardial infarction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Severe persistent drug-induced myelosuppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Severe hepatic impairment (defined as Child Pugh Class C or serum bilirubin level greater than 5 mg/dL) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Severe hypersensitivity reaction to doxorubicin hydrochloride, including anaphylaxis [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]
Doxorubicin hydrochloride can result in myocardial damage, including acute left ventricular failure. The risk of cardiomyopathy is generally proportional to the cumulative exposure. Include prior doses of other anthracyclines or anthracenediones in calculations of total cumulative dosage for doxorubicin hydrochloride. Cardiomyopathy may develop during treatment or up to several years after completion of treatment and can include decrease in LVEF and signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure (CHF). The probability of developing cardiomyopathy is estimated to be 1 to 2% at a total cumulative dose of 300 mg/m2 of doxorubicin hydrochloride, 3 to 5% at a dose of 400 mg/m2 , 5 to 8% at a dose of 450 mg/m2 , and 6 to 20% at a dose of 500 mg/m2 , when doxorubicin hydrochloride is administered every 3 weeks. There is an additive or potentially synergistic increase in the risk of cardiomyopathy in patients who have received radiotherapy to the mediastinum or concomitant therapy with other known cardiotoxic agents, such as cyclophosphamide and trastuzumab.
Pericarditis and myocarditis have also been reported during or following doxorubicin hydrochloride treatment.
Assess left ventricular cardiac function (e.g., MUGA or echocardiogram) prior to initiation of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection, during treatment to detect acute changes, and after treatment to detect delayed cardiotoxicity. Increase the frequency of assessments as the cumulative dose exceeds 300 mg/m2. Use the same method of assessment of LVEF at all time points [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. Discontinue Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection in patients who develop signs or symptoms of cardiomyopathy [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
Consider the use of dexrazoxane to reduce the incidence and severity of cardiomyopathy due to doxorubicin hydrochloride administration in patients who have received a cumulative doxorubicin hydrochloride dose of 300 mg/m2 and who will continue to receive doxorubicin hydrochloride.
Doxorubicin hydrochloride can result in arrhythmias, including life-threatening arrhythmias, during or within a few hours after doxorubicin hydrochloride administration and at any time point during treatment. Tachyarrhythmias, including sinus tachycardia, premature ventricular contractions, and ventricular tachycardia, as well as bradycardia, can occur. Electrocardiographic changes, including non-specific ST-T wave changes, atrioventricular and bundle-branch block can also occur. These electrocardiographic changes may be transient and self-limited and may not require a dosage modification of doxorubicin hydrochloride.
The risk of developing secondary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is increased following treatment with doxorubicin hydrochloride. Cumulative incidences ranged from 0.2% at five years to 1.5% at 10 years in two separate trials involving the adjuvant treatment of women with breast cancer. These leukemias generally occur within 1 to 3 years of treatment.
Extravasation of doxorubicin hydrochloride can cause severe local tissue injury manifesting as blistering, ulceration, and necrosis requiring wide excision of the affected area and skin grafting. Extravasation should be considered if a patient experiences a burning or stinging sensation or shows other evidence indicating peri-venous infiltration or extravasation; however, extravasation may be present in patients who do not experience a stinging or burning sensation or when blood return is present on aspiration of the infusion needle.
When given via a peripheral venous line, infuse Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection over 10 minutes or less to minimize the risk of thrombosis or perivenous extravasation.
If extravasation is suspected, immediately discontinue the intravenous injection or continuous intravenous infusion [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)]. Apply ice to the site intermittently for 15 minutes, 4 times a day for 3 days. In adults, if appropriate, administer dexrazoxane at the site of extravasation as soon as possible and within the first 6 hours after extravasation.
Doxorubicin hydrochloride can cause myelosuppression. In Study 1, the incidence of severe myelosuppression was: grade 4 leukopenia (0.3%), grade 3 leukopenia (3%), and grade 4 thrombocytopenia (0.1%). A dose-dependent, reversible neutropenia is the predominant manifestation of myelosuppression from doxorubicin hydrochloride. When doxorubicin hydrochloride is administered every 21 days, the neutrophil count reaches its nadir 10 to 14 days after administration with recovery usually occurring by day 21.
Obtain complete blood counts prior to each treatment and carefully monitor patients during treatment for possible clinical complications due to myelosuppression. Delay next dose of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection if severe myelosuppression has not improved. Consider dose reduction for patients with prolonged myelosuppression based on severity of reaction.
The clearance of doxorubicin hydrochloride is decreased in patients with elevated serum bilirubin with an increased risk of toxicity [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (defined as Child Pugh Class C or serum bilirubin level greater than 5 mg/dL) [see Contraindications (4)]. Reduce the dose of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection in patients with serum bilirubin levels of 1.2 to 5 mg/dL [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. Obtain liver tests including ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin prior to and during therapy.
Doxorubicin hydrochloride can induce tumor lysis syndrome in patients with rapidly growing tumors. Evaluate blood uric acid levels, potassium, calcium, phosphate, and creatinine after initial treatment. Hydration, urine alkalinization, and prophylaxis with allopurinol to prevent hyperuricemia may minimize potential complications of tumor lysis syndrome.
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