Diclofenac Potassium: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 4 of 5)

Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus

Use of NSAIDs, including diclofenac potassium tablets, at about 30 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of fetal ductus arteriosus.

Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment

Use of NSAIDs at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy has been associated with cases of fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment.

Data from observational studies regarding other potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In the general U.S. population, all clinically recognized pregnancies, regardless of drug exposure, have a background rate of 2-4% for major malformations, and 15-20% for pregnancy loss. In animal reproduction studies, no evidence of teratogenicity was observed in mice, rats, or rabbits given diclofenac during the period of organogenesis at doses up to approximately 0.5, 0.5, and 1 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of diclofenac potassium tablets, despite the presence of maternal and fetal toxicity at these doses [see Data]. Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as diclofenac, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss. Prostaglandins also have been shown to have an important role in kidney development. In published animal studies, prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors have been reported to impair kidney development when administered at clinically relevant doses.

Clinical Considerations

Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus

Avoid use of NSAIDs in women at about 30 weeks gestation and later in pregnancy, because NSAIDs, including diclofenac potassium tablets, can cause premature closure of fetal ductus arteriosus (see WARNINGS: Fetal Toxicity).

Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment

If an NSAID is necessary at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy, limit the use to the lowest effective dose and shortest duration possible. If diclofenac potassium tablets treatment extends beyond 48 hours, consider monitoring with ultrasound for oligohydramnios. If oligohydramnios occurs, discontinue diclofenac potassium tablets and follow up according to clinical practice (see WARNINGS: Fetal Toxicity).

Data

Human Data
Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus

Published literature reports that the use of NSAIDs at about 30 weeks of gestation and later in pregnancy may cause premature closure of fetal ductus arteriosus.

Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment

Published studies and postmarketing reports describe maternal NSAID use at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy associated with fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. These adverse outcomes are seen, on average, after days to weeks of treatment, although oligohydramnios has been infrequently reported as soon as 48 hours after NSAID initiation. In many cases, but not all, the decrease in amniotic fluid was transient and reversible with cessation of the drug. There have been a limited number of case reports of maternal NSAID use and neonatal renal dysfunction without oligohydramnios, some of which were irreversible. Some cases of neonatal renal dysfunction required treatment with invasive procedures, such as exchange transfusion or dialysis.

Methodological limitations of these postmarketing studies and reports include lack of a control group; limited information regarding dose, duration, and timing of drug exposure; and concomitant use of other medications. These limitations preclude establishing a reliable estimate of the risk of adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes with maternal NSAID use. Because the published safety data on neonatal outcomes involved mostly preterm infants, the generalizability of certain reported risks to the full-term infant exposed to NSAIDs through maternal use is uncertain.

Animal Data

Reproductive and developmental studies in animals demonstrated that diclofenac sodium administration during organogenesis did not produce teratogenicity despite the induction of maternal toxicity and fetal toxicity in mice at oral doses up to 20 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.5 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of diclofenac potassium tablets, 200 mg/day, based on body surface area (BSA) comparison), and in rats and rabbits at oral doses up to 10 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.5 and 1 times, respectively, the MRHD based on BSA comparison). In a study in which pregnant rats were orally administered 2 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg diclofenac (0.1 and 0.2 times the MRHD based on BSA) from Gestation Day 15 through Lactation Day 21, significant maternal toxicity (peritonitis, mortality) was noted. These maternally toxic doses were associated with dystocia, prolonged gestation, reduced fetal weights and growth, and reduced fetal survival. Diclofenac has been shown to cross the placental barrier in mice, rats, and humans.

Labor or Delivery

There are no studies on the effects of diclofenac potassium tablets during labor or delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDs, including diclofenac, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth.

Nursing Mothers

Risk Summary

Based on available data, diclofenac may be present in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for diclofenac potassium tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the diclofenac potassium tablets or from the underlying maternal condition.

Data

One woman treated orally with a diclofenac salt, 150 mg/day, had a milk diclofenac level of 100 mcg/L, equivalent to an infant dose of about 0.03 mg/kg/day. Diclofenac was not detectable in breast milk in 12 women using diclofenac (after either 100 mg/day orally for 7 days or a single 50 mg intramuscular dose administered in the immediate postpartum period).

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects (see WARNINGS: Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events, Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation, Hepatotoxicity, Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia, PRECAUTIONS: Laboratory Monitoring).

Diclofenac is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, ADVERSE REACTIONS).

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events (see WARNINGS)
GI Bleeding, Ulceration and Perforation (see WARNINGS)
Hepatotoxicity (see WARNINGS)
Hypertension (see WARNINGS)
Heart Failure and Edema (see WARNINGS)
Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia (see WARNINGS)
Anaphylactic Reactions (see WARNINGS)
Serious Skin Reactions (see WARNINGS)
Hematologic Toxicity (see WARNINGS)

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In 718 patients treated for shorter periods, i.e., 2 weeks or less, with diclofenac potassium tablets, adverse reactions were reported one-half to one-tenth as frequently as by patients treated for longer periods. In a 6-month, double-blind trial comparing diclofenac potassium tablets (N = 196) versus diclofenac sodium delayed-release tablets (N = 197) versus ibuprofen (N = 197), adverse reactions were similar in nature and frequency.

In patients taking diclofenac potassium tablets or other NSAIDs, the most frequently reported adverse experiences occurring in approximately 1%-10% of patients are:

Gastrointestinal experiences including: abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, gross bleeding/perforation, heartburn, nausea, GI ulcers (gastric/duodenal) and vomiting.

Abnormal renal function, anemia, dizziness, edema, elevated liver enzymes, headaches, increased bleeding time, pruritus, rashes and tinnitus.

Additional adverse experiences reported occasionally include:

Body as a Whole: fever, infection, sepsis

Cardiovascular System: congestive heart failure, hypertension, tachycardia, syncope

Digestive System: dry mouth, esophagitis, gastric/peptic ulcers, gastritis, gastrointestinal bleeding, glossitis, hematemesis, hepatitis, jaundice

Hemic and Lymphatic System: ecchymosis, eosinophilia, leukopenia, melena, purpura, rectal bleeding, stomatitis, thrombocytopenia

Metabolic and Nutritional: weight changes

Nervous System: anxiety, asthenia, confusion, depression, dream abnormalities, drowsiness, insomnia, malaise, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, tremors, vertigo

Respiratory System: asthma, dyspnea

Skin and Appendages: alopecia, photosensitivity, sweating increased

Special Senses: blurred vision

Urogenital System: cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, interstitial nephritis, oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria, renal failure

Other adverse reactions, which occur rarely are:

Body as a Whole: anaphylactic reactions, appetite changes, death

Cardiovascular System: arrhythmia, hypotension, myocardial infarction, palpitations, vasculitis

Digestive System: colitis eructation, fulminant hepatitis with and without jaundice, liver failure, liver necrosis, pancreatitis

Hemic and Lymphatic System: agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia

Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia

Nervous System: convulsions, coma, hallucinations, meningitis

Respiratory System: respiratory depression, pneumonia

Skin and Appendages: angioedema, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, urticaria

Special Senses: conjunctivitis, hearing impairment

OVERDOSAGE

Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression and coma have occurred, but were rare (see WARNINGS: Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events, Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation, Hypertension, Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia).

Manage patients with symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdosage. There are no specific antidotes. Consider emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 grams in adults, 1 to 2 grams per kg of body weight in pediatric patients) and/or osmotic cathartic in symptomatic patients seen within four hours of ingestion in patients with a large overdose (5 to 10 times the recommended dosage). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

For additional information about overdosage treatment contact a poison control center (1-800-222-1222).

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of diclofenac potassium tablets and other treatment options before deciding to use diclofenac potassium tablets. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS: Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation).

After observing the response to initial therapy with diclofenac potassium tablets, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.

For treatment of pain or primary dysmenorrhea the recommended dosage is 50 mg three times a day. With experience, physicians may find that in some patients an initial dose of 100 mg of diclofenac potassium tablets, followed by 50 mg doses, will provide better relief.

For the relief of osteoarthritis the recommended dosage is 100-150 mg/day in divided doses, 50 mg twice a day or three times a day.

For the relief of rheumatoid arthritis the recommended dosage is 150-200 mg/day in divided doses, 50 mg three times a day or four times a day.

Different formulations of diclofenac (diclofenac sodium enteric-coated tablets; diclofenac sodium extended-release tablets; diclofenac potassium immediate-release tablets) are not necessarily bioequivalent even if the milligram strength is the same.

HOW SUPPLIED

Diclofenac Potassium Tablets, USP are available containing 50 mg of diclofenac potassium, USP.

The 50 mg tablets are white, film-coated, round, unscored tablets debossed with M over D5 on one side of the tablet and blank on the other side. They are available as follows:

NDC 0378-2474-01bottles of 100 tablets

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]

Protect from moisture.

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.

PHARMACIST: Dispense a Medication Guide with each prescription.

Medication Guide for Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including:

Increased risk of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This risk may happen early in treatment and may increase:
o
with increasing doses of NSAIDs
o
with longer use of NSAIDs

Do not take NSAIDs right before or after a heart surgery called a “coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)”.

Avoid taking NSAIDs after a recent heart attack, unless your healthcare provider tells you to. You may have an increased risk of another heart attack if you take NSAIDs after a recent heart attack.

Increased risk of bleeding, ulcers, and tears (perforation) of the esophagus (tube leading from the mouth to the stomach), stomach and intestines:
o
any time during use
o
without warning symptoms
o
that may cause death

The risk of getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with:

o
past history of stomach ulcers, or stomach or intestinal bleeding with use of NSAIDs
o
taking medicines called “corticosteroids”, “anticoagulants”, “SSRIs” or “SNRIs”
o
increasing doses of NSAIDs
o
longer use of NSAIDs
o
smoking
o
drinking alcohol
o
older age
o
poor health
o
advanced liver disease
o
bleeding problems

NSAIDs should only be used:

o
exactly as prescribed
o
at the lowest dose possible for your treatment
o
for the shortest time needed

What are NSAIDs?

NSAIDs are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as different types of arthritis, menstrual cramps, and other types of short-term pain.

Who should not take NSAIDs?

Do not take NSAIDs:

if you had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction with aspirin or any other NSAIDs.
right before or after heart bypass surgery.

Before taking NSAIDs, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:

have liver or kidney problems
have high blood pressure
have asthma
are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Taking NSAIDs at about 20 weeks of pregnancy or later may harm your unborn baby. If you need to take NSAIDs for more than 2 days when you are between 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy, your healthcare provider may need to monitor the amount of fluid in your womb around your baby. You should not take NSAIDs after about 30 weeks of pregnancy.
are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed.

Tell your healthcare provider about all of the medicines you take, including prescription or over-the-counter medicines, vitamins or herbal supplements. NSAIDs and some other medicines can interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Do not start taking any new medicine without talking to your healthcare provider first.

What are the possible side effects of NSAIDs?

NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including:

See “What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?”

new or worse high blood pressure
heart failure
liver problems including liver failure
kidney problems including kidney failure
low red blood cells (anemia)
life-threatening skin reactions
life-threatening allergic reactions
Other side effects of NSAIDs include: stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea, gas, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, dizziness.

Get emergency help right away if you have any of the following symptoms:

shortness of breath or trouble breathing
chest pain
weakness in one part or side of your body
slurred speech
swelling of the face or throat

Stop taking your NSAID and call your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms:

nausea
more tired or weaker than usual
diarrhea
itching
your skin or eyes look yellow
indigestion or stomach pain
flu-like symptoms
vomit blood
there is blood in your bowel movement or it is black and sticky like tar
unusual weight gain
skin rash or blisters with fever
swelling of the arms, legs, hands and feet

If you take too much of your NSAID, call your healthcare provider or get medical help right away. These are not all the possible side effects of NSAIDs. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist about NSAIDs.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Other information about NSAIDs

Aspirin is an NSAID medicine but it does not increase the chance of a heart attack. Aspirin can cause bleeding in the brain, stomach, and intestines. Aspirin can also cause ulcers in the stomach and intestines.
Some NSAIDs are sold in lower doses without a prescription (over-the- counter). Talk to your healthcare provider before using over-the-counter NSAIDs for more than 10 days.

General information about the safe and effective use of NSAIDs

Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use NSAIDs for a condition for which they were not prescribed. Do not give NSAIDs to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. They may harm them.

If you would like more information about NSAIDs, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about NSAIDs that is written for health professionals.

Manufactured by: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc., Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.

For more information, call Mylan at 1-877-446-3679 (1-877-4-INFO-RX).

This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

The brands listed are trademarks of their respective owners.

Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.

Revised: 10/2020
DCFP:R11m/MG:DCFP:R4m

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