Diclofenac Potassium: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 3 of 5)

Serious Skin Reactions, Including DRESS

Advise patients to stop taking diclofenac potassium tablets immediately if they develop any type of rash or fever and to contact their healthcare provider as soon as possible (see WARNINGS).

Female Fertility

Advise females of reproductive potential who desire pregnancy that NSAIDs, including VOLTAREN® , may be associated with a reversible delay in ovulation (see PRECAUTIONS: Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility).

Fetal Toxicity

Inform pregnant women to avoid use of diclofenac potassium tablets and other NSAIDs starting at 30 weeks gestation because of the risk of the premature closing of the fetal ductus arteriosus. If treatment with diclofenac potassium tablets is needed for a pregnant woman between about 20 to 30 weeks gestation, advise her that she may need to be monitored for oligohydramnios, if treatment continues for longer than 48 hours (see WARNINGS: Fetal Toxicity, PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy).

Avoid Concomitant Use of NSAIDs

Inform patients that the concomitant use of diclofenac potassium tablets with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) is not recommended due to the increased risk of gastrointestinal toxicity, and little or no increase in efficacy (see WARNINGS: Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation and Drug Interactions). Alert patients that NSAIDs may be present in “over-the-counter” medications for treatment of colds, fever, or insomnia.

Use of NSAIDs and Low-Dose Aspirin

Inform patients not to use low-dose aspirin concomitantly with diclofenac potassium tablets until they talk to their healthcare provider (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).

Masking of Inflammation and Fever

The pharmacological activity of diclofenac potassium tablets in reducing fever and inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting infections.

Laboratory Monitoring

Because serious GI bleeding, hepatotoxicity, and renal injury can occur without warning symptoms or signs, consider monitoring patients on long-term NSAID treatment with a CBC and a chemistry profile periodically (see WARNINGS: Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration and Perforation, and Hepatotoxicity).

Drug Interactions

See Table 2 for clinically significant drug interactions with diclofenac.

Table 2. Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Diclofenac

Drugs That Interfere with Hemostasis

Clinical Impact:

Diclofenac and anticoagulants such as warfarin have a synergistic effect on bleeding. The concomitant use of diclofenac and anticoagulants have an increased risk of serious bleeding compared to the use of either drug alone.
Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Case-control and cohort epidemiological studies showed that concomitant use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and an NSAID may potentiate the risk of bleeding more than an NSAID alone.

Intervention:

Monitor patients with concomitant use of diclofenac potassium tablets with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for signs of bleeding (see WARNINGS: Hematological Toxicity).

Aspirin

Clinical Impact:

Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone (see WARNINGS: Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation).

Intervention:

Concomitant use of diclofenac potassium tablets and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding (see WARNINGS: Hematological Toxicity). Diclofenac potassium tablets are not a substitute for low dose aspirin for cardiovascular protection.

ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-Blockers

Clinical Impact:

NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or beta-blockers (including propranolol).
In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or have renal impairment, co-administration of an NSAID with ACE inhibitors or ARBs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.

Intervention:

During concomitant use of diclofenac potassium tablets and ACE-inhibitors, ARBs, or beta-blockers, monitor blood pressure to ensure that the desired blood pressure is obtained.
During concomitant use of diclofenac potassium tablets and ACE-inhibitors or ARBs in patients who are elderly, volume-depleted, or have impaired renal function, monitor for signs of worsening renal function (see WARNINGS: Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia).
When these drugs are administered concomitantly, patients should be adequately hydrated. Assess renal function at the beginning of the concomitant treatment and periodically thereafter.

Diuretics

Clinical Impact:

Clinical studies, as well as postmarketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.

Intervention:

During concomitant use of diclofenac potassium tablets with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects (see WARNINGS: Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia).

Digoxin

Clinical Impact:

The concomitant use of diclofenac with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.

Intervention:

During concomitant use of diclofenac potassium tablets and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels.

Lithium

Clinical Impact:

NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.

Intervention:

During concomitant use of diclofenac potassium tablets and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.

Methotrexate

Clinical Impact:

Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction).

Intervention:

During concomitant use of diclofenac potassium tablets and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.

Cyclosporine

Clinical Impact:

Concomitant use of diclofenac potassium tablets and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity.

Intervention:

During concomitant use of diclofenac potassium tablets and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.

NSAIDs and Salicylates

Clinical Impact:

Concomitant use of diclofenac with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy (see WARNINGS: Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation).

Intervention:

The concomitant use of diclofenac with other NSAIDs or salicylates is not recommended.

Pemetrexed

Clinical Impact:

Concomitant use of diclofenac potassium tablets and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).

Intervention:

During concomitant use of diclofenac potassium tablets and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 mL/min to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity.

NSAIDs with short elimination half-lives (e.g., diclofenac, indomethacin) should be avoided for a period of two days before, the day of, and two days following administration of pemetrexed.

In the absence of data regarding potential interaction between pemetrexed and NSAIDs with longer half-lives (e.g., meloxicam, nabumetone), patients taking these NSAIDs should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration.

CYP2C9 Inhibitors or Inducers

Clinical Impact:

Diclofenac is metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes, predominantly by CYP2C9. Co-administration of diclofenac with CYP2C9 inhibitors (e.g., voriconazole) may enhance the exposure and toxicity of diclofenac whereas co-administration with CYP2C9 inducers (e.g., rifampin) may lead to compromised efficacy of diclofenac.

Intervention:

A dosage adjustment may be warranted when diclofenac is administered with CYP2C9 inhibitors or inducers (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics).

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

Long-term carcinogenicity studies in rats given diclofenac sodium up to 2 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.1 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of diclofenac potassium tablets, 200 mg/day, based on body surface area (BSA) comparison) have revealed no significant increase in tumor incidence. A 2-year carcinogenicity study conducted in mice employing diclofenac sodium at doses up to 0.3 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.007 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison) in males and 1 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.02 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison) in females did not reveal any oncogenic potential.

Mutagenesis

Diclofenac sodium did not show mutagenic activity in in vitro point mutation assays in mammalian (mouse lymphoma) and microbial (yeast, Ames) test systems and was nonmutagenic in several mammalian in vitro and in vivo tests, including dominant lethal and male germinal epithelial chromosomal studies in mice, and nucleus anomaly and chromosomal aberration studies in Chinese hamsters.

Impairment of Fertility

Diclofenac sodium administered to male and female rats at 4 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.2 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison) did not affect fertility.

Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including diclofenac potassium tablets, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin-mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including diclofenac potassium tablets, in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility.

Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Use of NSAIDs, including diclofenac potassium tablets, can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios and, in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. Because of these risks, limit dose and duration of diclofenac potassium tablets use between about 20 and 30 weeks of gestation, and avoid diclofenac potassium tablets use at about 30 weeks of gestation and later in pregnancy (see WARNINGS: Fetal Toxicity).

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