There is a potentially relevant interaction between diazepam and compounds which inhibit certain hepatic enzymes (particularly cytochrome P450 3A and 2C19). Data indicate that these compounds influence the pharmacokinetics of diazepam and may lead to increased and prolonged sedation. At present, this reaction is known to occur with cimetidine, ketoconazole, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, and omeprazole.
There have also been reports that the metabolic elimination of phenytoin is decreased by diazepam.
In studies in which mice and rats were administered diazepam in the diet at a dose of 75 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 and 12 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD = 1 mg/kg/day] on a mg/m 2 basis) for 80 and 104 weeks, respectively, an increased incidence of liver tumors was observed in males of both species. The data currently available are inadequate to determine the mutagenic potential of diazepam. Reproduction studies in rats showed decreases in the number of pregnancies and in the number of surviving offspring following administration of an oral dose of 100 mg/kg/day (approximately 16 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis) prior to and during mating and throughout gestation and lactation. No adverse effects on fertility or offspring viability were noted at a dose of 80 mg/kg/day (approximately 13 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis).
Category D (see WARNINGS, Pregnancy).
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 6 months have not been established.
In elderly patients, it is recommended that the dosage be limited to the smallest effective amount to preclude the development of ataxia or oversedation (2 mg to 2.5 mg once or twice daily, initially to be increased gradually as needed and tolerated).
Extensive accumulation of diazepam and its major metabolite, desmethyldiazepam, has been noted following chronic administration of diazepam in healthy elderly male subjects. Metabolites of this drug are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Decreases in clearance and protein binding, and increases in volume of distribution and half-life have been reported in patients with cirrhosis. In such patients, a 2 to 5 fold increase in mean half-life has been reported. Delayed elimination has also been reported for the active metabolite desmethyldiazepam. Benzodiazepines are commonly implicated in hepatic encephalopathy. Increases in half-life have also been reported in hepatic fibrosis and in both acute and chronic hepatitis (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics in Special Populations, Hepatic Insufficiency).
Side effects most commonly reported were drowsiness, fatigue, muscle weakness, and ataxia. The following have also been reported:
Central Nervous System: confusion, depression, dysarthria, headache, slurred speech, tremor, vertigo
Gastrointestinal System: constipation, nausea, gastrointestinal disturbances
Special Senses: blurred vision, diplopia, dizziness
Cardiovascular System: hypotension
Psychiatric and Paradoxical Reactions: stimulation, restlessness, acute hyperexcited states, anxiety, agitation, aggressiveness, irritability, rage, hallucinations, psychoses, delusions, increased muscle spasticity, insomnia, sleep disturbances, and nightmares. Inappropriate behavior and other adverse behavioral effects have been reported when using benzodiazepines. Should these occur, use of the drug should be discontinued. They are more likely to occur in children and in the elderly.
Urogenital System: incontinence, changes in libido, urinary retention
Skin and Appendages: skin reactions
Laboratories: elevated transaminases and alkaline phosphatase
Other: changes in salivation, including dry mouth, hypersalivation
Antegrade amnesia may occur using therapeutic dosages, the risk increasing at higher dosages. Amnestic effects may be associated with inappropriate behavior.
Minor changes in EEG patterns, usually low-voltage fast activity, have been observed in patients during and after diazepam therapy and are of no known significance.
Because of isolated reports of neutropenia and jaundice, periodic blood counts and liver function tests are advisable during long-term therapy.
Injury, Poisoning and Procedural Complications: There have been reports of falls and fractures in benzodiazepine users. The risk is increased in those taking concomitant sedatives (including alcohol), and in the elderly.
Diazepam is subject to Schedule IV control under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. Abuse and dependence of benzodiazepines have been reported. Addiction-prone individuals (such as drug addicts or alcoholics) should be under careful surveillance when receiving diazepam or other psychotropic agents because of the predisposition of such patients to habituation and dependence. Once physical dependence to benzodiazepines has developed, termination of treatment will be accompanied by withdrawal symptoms. The risk is more pronounced in patients on long-term therapy.
Withdrawal symptoms, similar in character to those noted with barbiturates and alcohol have occurred following abrupt discontinuance of diazepam. These withdrawal symptoms may consist of tremor, abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, headache, muscle pain, extreme anxiety, tension, restlessness, confusion and irritability. In severe cases, the following symptoms may occur: derealization, depersonalization, hyperacusis, numbness and tingling of the extremities, hypersensitivity to light, noise and physical contact, hallucinations or epileptic seizures. The more severe withdrawal symptoms have usually been limited to those patients who had received excessive doses over an extended period of time. Generally milder withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and insomnia) have been reported following abrupt discontinuance of benzodiazepines taken continuously at therapeutic levels for several months. Consequently, after extended therapy, abrupt discontinuation should generally be avoided and a gradual dosage tapering schedule followed.
Chronic use (even at therapeutic doses) may lead to the development of physical dependence: discontinuation of the therapy may result in withdrawal or rebound phenomena.
Rebound Anxiety: A transient syndrome whereby the symptoms that led to treatment with diazepam recur in an enhanced form. This may occur upon discontinuation of treatment. It may be accompanied by other reactions including mood changes, anxiety, and restlessness.
Since the risk of withdrawal phenomena and rebound phenomena is greater after abrupt discontinuation of treatment, it is recommended that the dosage be decreased gradually.
Overdose of benzodiazepines is usually manifested by central nervous system depression ranging from drowsiness to coma. In mild cases, symptoms include drowsiness, confusion, and lethargy. In more serious cases, symptoms may include ataxia, diminished reflexes, hypotonia, hypotension, respiratory depression, coma (rarely), and death (very rarely). Overdose of benzodiazepines in combination with other CNS depressants (including alcohol) may be fatal and should be closely monitored.
Following overdose with oral benzodiazepines, general supportive measures should be employed including the monitoring of respiration, pulse, and blood pressure. Vomiting should be induced (within 1 hour) if the patient is conscious. Gastric lavage should be undertaken with the airway protected if the patient is unconscious. Intravenous fluids should be administered. If there is no advantage in emptying the stomach, activated charcoal should be given to reduce absorption. Special attention should be paid to respiratory and cardiac function in intensive care. General supportive measures should be employed, along with intravenous fluids, and an adequate airway maintained. Should hypotension develop, treatment may include intravenous fluid therapy, repositioning, judicious use of vasopressors appropriate to the clinical situation, if indicated, and other appropriate countermeasures. Dialysis is of limited value.
As with the management of intentional overdosage with any drug, it should be considered that multiple agents may have been ingested.
Flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepine-receptor antagonist, is indicated for the complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines and may be used in situations when an overdose with a benzodiazepine is known or suspected. Prior to the administration of flumazenil, necessary measures should be instituted to secure airway, ventilation and intravenous access. Flumazenil is intended as an adjunct to, not as a substitute for, proper management of benzodiazepine overdose. Patients treated with flumazenil should be monitored for resedation, respiratory depression and other residual benzodiazepine effects for an appropriate period after treatment. The prescriber should be aware of a risk of seizure in association with flumazenil treatment, particularly in long-term benzodiazepine users and in cyclic antidepressant overdose. Caution should be observed in the use of flumazenil in epileptic patients treated with benzodiazepines. The complete flumazenil package insert, including CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS , and PRECAUTIONS , should be consulted prior to use.
Withdrawal symptoms of the barbiturate type have occurred after the discontinuation of benzodiazepines (see DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE).
Dosage should be individualized for maximum beneficial effect. While the usual daily dosages given below will meet the needs of most patients, there will be some who may require higher doses. In such cases dosage should be increased cautiously to avoid adverse effects.
USUAL DAILY DOSE:
Management of Anxiety Disorders and Relief of Symptoms of Anxiety.
Depending upon severity of symptoms – 2 mg to 10 mg, 2 to 4 times daily
Symptomatic Relief in Acute Alcohol Withdrawal.
10 mg, 3 or 4 times during the first 24 hours, reducing to 5 mg, 3 or 4 times daily as needed
Adjunctively for Relief of Skeletal Muscle Spasm.
2 mg to 10 mg, 3 or 4 times daily
Adjunctively in Convulsive Disorders.
2 mg to 10 mg, 2 to 4 times daily
Geriatric Patients, or in the presence of debilitating disease.
2 mg to 2.5 mg, 1 or 2 times daily initially; increase gradually as needed and tolerated
Because of varied responses to CNS-acting drugs, initiate therapy with lowest dose and increase as required. Not for use in pediatric patients under 6 months.
1 mg to 2.5 mg, 3 or 4 times daily initially; increase gradually as needed and tolerated
Diazepam Tablets USP, 10 mg are available as light blue, round, flat face, beveled edge tablets, debossed “3927” and bisected on one side and “TEVA” on the other side, containing 10 mg of diazepam, USP.
NDC 43063-987-02 10 mg packaged in bottles of 2 tablets
NDC 43063-987-20 10 mg packaged in bottles of 20 tablets
NDC 43063-987-30 10 mg packaged in bottles of 30 tablets
NDC 43063-987-60 10 mg packaged in bottles of 60 tablets
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).
KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.
Diazepam (dye-AZ-e-pam) Tablets, C-IV
What is the most important information I should know about diazepam tablets?
What are diazepam tablets?
Do not take diazepam tablets if you:
Before you take diazepam tablets, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:
Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take , including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Taking diazepam tablets with certain other medicines can cause side effects or affect how well diazepam tablets or the other medicines work. Do not start or stop other medicines without talking to your healthcare provider.
How should I take diazepam tablets?
What should I avoid while taking diazepam tablets?
What are the possible side effects of diazepam tablets?
Diazepam tablets may cause serious side effects, including:
Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of these symptoms, especially if they are new, worse, or worry you:
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How can I watch for early symptoms of suicidal thoughts and actions?
Call your healthcare provider between visits as needed, especially if you are worried about symptoms. Suicidal thoughts or actions can be caused by things other than medicines. If you have suicidal thoughts or actions, your healthcare provider may check for other causes.
The most common side effects of diazepam tablets include:
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These are not all the possible side effects of diazepam tablets. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. You may also report side effects to Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc. at 1-866-832-8537.
How should I store diazepam tablets?
General information about the safe and effective use of diazepam tablets.
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use diazepam tablets for a condition for which they were not prescribed. Do not give diazepam tablets to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. They may harm them. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about diazepam tablets that is written for health professionals.
What are the ingredients in diazepam tablets?
Active ingredient: diazepam
Inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, colloidal silicon dioxide; colorants: 5 mg only (D&C Yellow No. 10 aluminum lake and FD&C Yellow No. 6); 10 mg only (FD&C Blue No. 1 aluminum lake); magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized corn starch, and sodium starch glycolate
Manufactured In Czech Republic By:
Teva Czech Industries, s.r.o.
Opava-Komarov, Czech Republic
Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.
North Wales, PA 19454
For more information, go to www.tevagenerics.com or call 1-888-838-2872.
This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Revised: March 2017
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