Daliresp: Package Insert and Label Information

DALIRESP- roflumilast tablet
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

DALIRESP® is indicated as a treatment to reduce the risk of COPD exacerbations in patients with severe COPD associated with chronic bronchitis and a history of exacerbations.

Limitations of Use

DALIRESP is not a bronchodilator and is not indicated for the relief of acute bronchospasm.

DALIRESP 250 mcg is a starting dose, for the first 4 weeks of treatment only and is not the effective (therapeutic) dose.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The maintenance dose of DALIRESP is one 500 micrograms (mcg) tablet per day, with or without food.

Starting treatment with a dose of DALIRESP 250 mcg once daily for 4 weeks and increasing to DALIRESP 500 mcg once daily thereafter may reduce the rate of treatment discontinuation in some patients [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. However, 250 mcg per day is not the effective (therapeutic) dose.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

DALIRESP 250 mcg tablets are white to off-white, round, embossed with “D” on one side and “250” on the other side
DALIRESP 500 mcg tablets are white to off-white, round, embossed with “D” on one side and “500” on the other side

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

The use of DALIRESP is contraindicated in the following condition:

Moderate to severe liver impairment (Child-Pugh B or C) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Treatment of Acute Bronchospasm

DALIRESP is not a bronchodilator and should not be used for the relief of acute bronchospasm.

5.2 Psychiatric Events including Suicidality

Treatment with DALIRESP is associated with an increase in psychiatric adverse reactions. In 8 controlled clinical trials 5.9% (263) of patients treated with DALIRESP 500 mcg daily reported psychiatric adverse reactions compared to 3.3% (137) treated with placebo. The most commonly reported psychiatric adverse reactions were insomnia, anxiety, and depression which were reported at higher rates in those treated with DALIRESP 500 mcg daily (2.4%, 1.4%, and 1.2% for DALIRESP versus 1.0%, 0.9%, and 0.9% for placebo, respectively) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Instances of suicidal ideation and behavior, including completed suicide, have been observed in clinical trials. Three patients experienced suicide-related adverse reactions (one completed suicide and two suicide attempts) while receiving DALIRESP compared to one patient (suicidal ideation) who received placebo. One patient completed suicide while receiving DALIRESP in Trial 9 [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] , which assessed the effect of adding roflumilast to a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of ICS/LABA on rates of exacerbations in COPD patients over 1 year of treatment. Cases of suicidal ideation and behavior, including completed suicide, have been observed in the post-marketing setting in patients with or without a history of depression.

Before using DALIRESP in patients with a history of depression and/or suicidal thoughts or behavior, prescribers should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of treatment with DALIRESP in such patients. Patients, their caregivers, and families should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of insomnia, anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts or other mood changes, and if such changes occur to contact their healthcare provider. Prescribers should carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of continuing treatment with DALIRESP if such events occur.

5.3 Weight Decrease

Weight loss was a common adverse reaction in DALIRESP clinical trials and was reported in 7.5% (331) of patients treated with DALIRESP 500 mcg once daily compared to 2.1% (89) treated with placebo [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. In addition to being reported as adverse reactions, weight was prospectively assessed in two placebo-controlled clinical trials of one year duration. In these studies, 20% of patients receiving roflumilast experienced moderate weight loss (defined as between 5-10% of body weight) compared to 7% of patients who received placebo. In addition, 7% of patients who received roflumilast compared to 2% of patients receiving placebo experienced severe (>10% body weight) weight loss. During follow-up after treatment discontinuation, the majority of patients with weight loss regained some of the weight they had lost while receiving DALIRESP. Patients treated with DALIRESP should have their weight monitored regularly. If unexplained or clinically significant weight loss occurs, weight loss should be evaluated, and discontinuation of DALIRESP should be considered.

5.4 Drug Interactions

A major step in roflumilast metabolism is the N-oxidation of roflumilast to roflumilast N-oxide by CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. The administration of the cytochrome P450 enzyme inducer rifampicin resulted in a reduction in exposure, which may result in a decrease in the therapeutic effectiveness of DALIRESP. Therefore, the use of strong cytochrome P450 enzyme inducers (e.g., rifampicin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, phenytoin) with DALIRESP is not recommended [see Drug Interactions (7.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following adverse reactions are described in greater detail in other sections:

Psychiatric Events Including Suicidality [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Weight Decrease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]

6.1 Adverse Reactions in Clinical Studies

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The safety data described below reflect exposure of 4438 patients to DALIRESP 500 mcg once daily in four 1-year placebo-controlled trials, two 6-month placebo-controlled trials, and two 6-month drug add-on trials [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. In these trials, 3136 and 1232 COPD patients were exposed to DALIRESP 500 mcg once daily for 6 months and 1 year, respectively.

The population had a median age of 64 years (range 40-91), 73% were male, 92.9% were Caucasian, and had COPD with a mean pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) of 8.9 to 89.1% predicted. In these trials, 68.5% of the patients treated with DALIRESP reported an adverse reaction compared with 65.3% treated with placebo.

The proportion of patients who discontinued treatment due to adverse reaction was 14.8% for DALIRESP-treated patients and 9.9% for placebo-treated patients. The most common adverse reactions that led to discontinuation of DALIRESP were diarrhea (2.4%) and nausea (1.6%).

Serious adverse reactions, whether considered drug-related or not by the investigators, which occurred more frequently in DALIRESP-treated patients include diarrhea, atrial fibrillation, lung cancer, prostate cancer, acute pancreatitis, and acute renal failure.

Table 1 summarizes the adverse reactions reported by ≥2% of patients in the DALIRESP group in 8 controlled COPD clinical trials.

Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥2% of Patients Treated with DALIRESP 500 mcg daily and Greater Than Placebo

Treatment

Adverse Reactions

DALIRESP

Placebo

(Preferred Term)

(N= 4438)

(N= 4192)

n (%)

n (%)

Diarrhea

420 (9.5)

113 (2.7)

Weight decreased

331 (7.5)

89 (2.1)

Nausea

209 (4.7)

60 (1.4)

Headache

195 (4.4)

87 (2.1)

Back pain

142 (3.2)

92 (2.2)

Influenza

124 (2.8)

112 (2.7)

Insomnia

105 (2.4)

41 (1.0)

Dizziness

92 (2.1)

45 (1.1)

Decreased appetite

91 (2.1)

15 (0.4)

Adverse reactions that occurred in the DALIRESP group at a frequency of 1 to 2% where rates exceeded that in the placebo group include:

Gastrointestinal disorders — abdominal pain, dyspepsia, gastritis, vomiting

Infections and infestations — rhinitis, sinusitis, urinary tract infection

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders — muscle spasms

Nervous system disorders — tremor

Psychiatric disorders — anxiety, depression

The safety profile of roflumilast reported during Trial 9 was consistent with the key pivotal studies.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified from spontaneous reports of DALIRESP received worldwide and have not been listed elsewhere. These adverse reactions have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of seriousness, frequency of reporting or potential causal connection to DALIRESP. Because these adverse reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to DALIRESP exposure: hypersensitivity reactions (including angioedema, urticaria, and rash), gynecomastia.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

A major step in roflumilast metabolism is the N-oxidation of roflumilast to roflumilast N-oxide by CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.1 Drugs that Induce Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Enzymes

Strong cytochrome P450 enzyme inducers decrease systemic exposure to roflumilast and may reduce the therapeutic effectiveness of DALIRESP. Therefore the use of strong cytochrome P450 inducers (e.g., rifampicin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and phenytoin) with DALIRESP is not recommended [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.2 Drugs that Inhibit Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Enzymes

The co-administration of DALIRESP (500 mcg) with CYP3A4 inhibitors or dual inhibitors that inhibit both CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 simultaneously (e.g., erythromycin, ketoconazole, fluvoxamine, enoxacin, cimetidine) may increase roflumilast systemic exposure and may result in increased adverse reactions. The risk of such concurrent use should be weighed carefully against benefit [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.3 Oral Contraceptives Containing Gestodene and Ethinyl Estradiol

The co-administration of DALIRESP (500 mcg) with oral contraceptives containing gestodene and ethinyl estradiol may increase roflumilast systemic exposure and may result in increased side effects. The risk of such concurrent use should be weighed carefully against benefit [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

There are no randomized clinical studies of DALIRESP in pregnant women. In animal reproductive toxicity studies, DALIRESP administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis produced no fetal structural abnormalities. The highest DALIRESP dose in these studies was approximately 30 and 26 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD). DALIRESP induced post-implantation loss in rats at doses greater than or equal to approximately 10 times the MRHD. DALIRESP induced stillbirth and decreased pup viability in mice at doses corresponding to approximately 16 and 49 times, respectively, the MRHD. DALIRESP has been shown to adversely affect pup post-natal development when dams were treated with the drug during pregnancy and lactation periods in mice at doses corresponding to 49 times the MRHD (see Data).

The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Labor and delivery

DALIRESP should not be used during labor and delivery. There are no human studies that have investigated effects of DALIRESP on preterm labor or labor at term; however, animal studies showed that DALIRESP disrupted the labor and delivery process in mice.

Data

Animal data

In an embryo-fetal development study, pregnant rats were dosed orally during the period of organogenesis with up to 1.8 mg/kg/day DALIRESP (approximately 30 times the MRHD on an AUC basis). No evidence of structural abnormalities or effects on survival rates were observed. DALIRESP did not affect embryo-fetal development at approximately 3 times the MRHD (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day).

In a fertility and embryo-fetal development study, male rats were dosed orally with up to 1.8 mg/kg/day DALIRESP for 10 weeks and females for two weeks prior to pairing and throughout the organogenesis period. DALIRESP induced pre- and post-implantation loss at doses greater than or equal to approximately 10 times the MRHD (on a mg/m2 basis at maternal oral doses greater than or equal to 0.6 mg/kg/day). DALIRESP did not cause fetal structural abnormalities at exposures up to approximately 29 times the MRHD (on an AUC basis at maternal oral doses up to 1.8 mg/kg/day).

In an embryo-fetal development study in rabbits, pregnant does were dosed orally with 0.8 mg/kg/day DALIRESP during the period of organogenesis. DALIRESP did not cause fetal structural abnormalities at exposures approximately 26 times the MRHD (on a mg/m2 basis at maternal oral doses of 0.8 mg/kg/day).

In pre- and post-natal developmental studies in mice, dams were dosed orally with up to 12 mg/kg/day

DALIRESP during the period of organogenesis and lactation. DALIRESP induced stillbirth and decreased pup

viability at doses corresponding to approximately 16 and 49 times, respectively, the MRHD (on a mg/m2

basis at maternal doses >2 mg/kg/day and 6 mg/kg/day, respectively). DALIRESP induced delivery retardation in pregnant mice at doses greater or equal to approximately 16 times the MRHD (on a mg/m2 basis at maternal doses >2 mg/kg/day). DALIRESP decreased pup rearing frequencies at approximately 49 times the MRHD (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 6 mg/kg/day) during pregnancy and lactation. DALIRESP also decreased survival and forelimb grip reflex and delayed pinna detachment in mouse pups at approximately 97 times the MRHD (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 12 mg/kg/day).

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

There is no information regarding the presence of DALIRESP in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production.

Roflumilast and/or its metabolites are excreted into the milk of lactating rats. Excretion of roflumilast and/or its metabolites into human milk is probable. DALIRESP should not be used by women who are nursing.

Data

Animal data

Roflumilast and/or its metabolite concentrations measured 8 hours after an oral dose of 1 mg/kg given to lactating rats were 0.32 and 0.02 mcg/g in the milk and pup liver, respectively.

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