CYCLOBENZAPRINE HYDROCHLORIDE- cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride tablet, film coated
St Mary’s Medical Park Pharmacy
Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride, USP is a white, crystalline tricyclic amine salt with the molecular formula C 20 H 21 N • HCl and a molecular weight of 311.9. It has a melting point of 217ºC, and a pK a of 8.47 at 25ºC. It is freely soluble in water and alcohol, sparingly soluble in isopropanol, and insoluble in hydrocarbon solvents. If aqueous solutions are made alkaline, the free base separates. Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride is designated chemically as 3-( 5H -dibenzo[ a , d ] cyclohepten-5-ylidene)- N, N -dimethyl-1-propanamine hydrochloride, and has the following structural formula:
Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride is supplied as 5 mg or 10 mg tablets for oral administration. Each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, pregelatinized starch (maize) and titanium dioxide. In addition 5 mg also contains D&C yellow #10 aluminum lake and FD&C yellow #6 aluminum lake and 10 mg also contains yellow iron oxide.
FDA approved dissolution test specifications differ from USP.
Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride relieves skeletal muscle spasm of local origin without interfering with muscle function. It is ineffective in muscle spasm due to central nervous system disease.
Cyclobenzaprine reduced or abolished skeletal muscle hyperactivity in several animal models. Animal studies indicate that cyclobenzaprine does not act at the neuromuscular junction or directly on skeletal muscle. Such studies show that cyclobenzaprine acts primarily within the central nervous system at brain stem as opposed to spinal cord levels, although its action on the latter may contribute to its overall skeletal muscle relaxant activity. Evidence suggests that the net effect of cyclobenzaprine is a reduction of tonic somatic motor activity, influencing both gamma (γ) and alpha (α) motor systems. Pharmacological studies in animals showed a similarity between the effects of cyclobenzaprine and the structurally related tricyclic antidepressants, including reserpine antagonism, norepinephrine potentiation, potent peripheral and central anticholinergic effects, and sedation. Cyclobenzaprine caused slight to moderate increase in heart rate in animals.
Estimates of mean oral bioavailability of cyclobenzaprine range from 33% to 55%. Cyclobenzaprine exhibits linear pharmacokinetics over the dose range 2.5 mg to 10 mg, and is subject to enterohepatic circulation. It is highly bound to plasma proteins. Drug accumulates when dosed three times a day, reaching steady-state within 3 to 4 days at plasma concentrations about four-fold higher than after a single dose. At steady state in healthy subjects receiving 10 mg t.i.d. (n=18), peak plasma concentration was 25.9 ng/mL (range, 12.8 to 46.1 ng/mL), and area under the concentration-time (AUC) curve over an 8-hour dosing interval was 177 ng.hr/mL (range, 80 to 319 ng.hr/mL).
Cyclobenzaprine is extensively metabolized, and is excreted primarily as glucuronides via the kidney. Cytochromes P-450 3A4, 1A2, and, to a lesser extent, 2D6, mediate N-demethylation, one of the oxidative pathways for cyclobenzaprine. Cyclobenzaprine is eliminated quite slowly, with an effective half-life of 18 hours (range 8 to 37 hours; n=18); plasma clearance is 0.7 L/min. The plasma concentration of cyclobenzaprine is generally higher in the elderly and in patients with hepatic impairment. (See PRECAUTIONS, Use in the Elderly and PRECAUTIONS, Impaired Hepatic Function.)
In a pharmacokinetic study in elderly individuals (≥65 yrs old), mean (n=10) steady-state cyclobenzaprine AUC values were approximately 1.7 fold (171 ng.hr/mL, range 96.1 to 255.3) higher than those seen in a group of eighteen younger adults (101.4 ng.hr/mL, range 36.1 to 182.9) from another study. Elderly male subjects had the highest observed mean increase, approximately 2.4 fold (198.3 ng.hr/mL, range 155.6 to 255.3 versus 83.2 ng.hr/mL, range 41.1 to 142.5 for younger males) while levels in elderly females were increased to a much lesser extent, approximately 1.2 fold (143.8 ng.hr/mL, range 96.1 to 196.3 versus 115.9 ng.hr/mL, range 36.1 to 182.9 for younger females). In light of these findings, therapy with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride in the elderly should be initiated with a 5 mg dose and titrated slowly upward.
In a pharmacokinetic study of sixteen subjects with hepatic impairment (15 mild, 1 moderate per Child-Pugh score), both AUC and C max were approximately double the values seen in the healthy control group. Based on the findings, cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride should be used with caution in subjects with mild hepatic impairment starting with the 5 mg dose and titrating slowly upward. Due to the lack of data in subjects with more severe hepatic insufficiency, the use of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride in subjects with moderate to severe impairment is not recommended. No significant effect on plasma levels or bioavailability of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride or aspirin was noted when single or multiple doses of the two drugs were administered concomitantly. Concomitant administration of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride and naproxen or diflunisal was well tolerated with no reported unexpected adverse effects. However combination therapy of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride with naproxen was associated with more side effects than therapy with naproxen alone, primarily in the form of drowsiness. No well-controlled studies have been performed to indicate that cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride enhances the clinical effect of aspirin or other analgesics, or whether analgesics enhance the clinical effect of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride in acute musculoskeletal conditions.
Eight double-blind controlled clinical studies were performed in 642 patients comparing cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 10 mg, diazepam
1 , and placebo. Muscle spasm, local pain and tenderness, limitation of motion, and restriction in activities of daily living were evaluated. In three of these studies there was a significantly greater improvement with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride than with diazepam, while in the other studies the improvement following both treatments was comparable.
Although the frequency and severity of adverse reactions observed in patients treated with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride were comparable to those observed in patients treated with diazepam, dry mouth was observed more frequently in patients treated with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride and dizziness more frequently in those treated with diazepam. The incidence of drowsiness, the most frequent adverse reaction, was similar with both drugs.
The efficacy of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 5 mg was demonstrated in two seven-day, double-blind, controlled clinical trials enrolling 1405 patients. One study compared cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 5 mg and 10 mg t.i.d. to placebo; and a second study compared cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 5 mg and 2.5 mg t.i.d. to placebo. Primary endpoints for both trials were determined by patient-generated data and included global impression of change, medication helpfulness, and relief from starting backache. Each endpoint consisted of a score on a 5-point rating scale (from 0 or worst outcome to 4 or best outcome). Secondary endpoints included a physician’s evaluation of the presence and extent of palpable muscle spasm.
Comparisons of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 5 mg and placebo groups in both trials established the statistically significant superiority of the 5 mg dose for all three primary endpoints at day 8 and, in the study comparing 5 and 10 mg, at day 3 or 4 as well. A similar effect was observed with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 10 mg (all endpoints). Physician-assessed secondary endpoints also showed that cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 5 mg was associated with a greater reduction in palpable muscle spasm than placebo.
Analysis of the data from controlled studies shows that cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride produces clinical improvement whether or not sedation occurs. 1 VALIUM ® (diazepam, Roche)
A post-marketing surveillance program was carried out in 7607 patients with acute musculoskeletal disorders, and included 297 patients treated with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 10 mg for 30 days or longer. The overall effectiveness of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride was similar to that observed in the double-blind controlled studies; the overall incidence of adverse effects was less (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride tablets, USP are indicated as an adjunct to rest and physical therapy for relief of muscle spasm associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions.
Improvement is manifested by relief of muscle spasm and its associated signs and symptoms, namely, pain, tenderness, limitation of motion, and restriction in activities of daily living.
Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride tablets, USP should be used only for short periods (up to two or three weeks) because adequate evidence of effectiveness for more prolonged use is not available and because muscle spasm associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions is generally of short duration and specific therapy for longer periods is seldom warranted. Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride tablets, USP have not been found effective in the treatment of spasticity associated with cerebral or spinal cord disease, or in children with cerebral palsy.
Hypersensitivity to any component of this product.
Concomitant use of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors or within 14 days after their discontinuation. Hyperpyretic crisis seizures, and deaths have occurred in patients receiving cyclobenzaprine (or structurally similar tricyclic antidepressants) concomitantly with MAO inhibitor drugs.
Acute recovery phase of myocardial infarction, and patients with arrhythmias, heart block or conduction disturbances, or congestive heart failure. Hyperthyroidism.
The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has been reported with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride when used in combination with other drugs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), tramadol, bupropion, meperidine, verapamil, or MAO inhibitors. The concomitant use of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride with MAO inhibitors is contraindicated (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., confusion, agitation, hallucinations), autonomic instability (e.g., diaphoresis, tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular abnormalities (e.g., tremor, ataxia, hyperreflexia, clonus, muscle rigidity), and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Treatment with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride and any concomitant serotonergic agents should be discontinued immediately if the above reactions occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated. If concomitant treatment with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride and other serotonergic drugs is clinically warranted, careful observation is advised, particularly during treatment initiation or dose increases (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).
Cyclobenzaprine is closely related to the tricyclic antidepressants, e.g., amitriptyline and imipramine. In short term studies for indications other than muscle spasm associated with acute musculoskeletal conditions, and usually at doses somewhat greater than those recommended for skeletal muscle spasm, some of the more serious central nervous system reactions noted with the tricyclic antidepressants have occurred (see WARNINGS, below, and ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Tricyclic antidepressants have been reported to produce arrhythmias, sinus tachycardia, prolongation of the conduction time leading to myocardial infarction and stroke. Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride may enhance the effects of alcohol, barbiturates, and other CNS depressants.
Because of its atropine-like action, cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride should be used with caution in patients with a history of urinary retention, angle-closure glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, and in patients taking anticholinergic medication.
The plasma concentration of cyclobenzaprine is increased in patients with hepatic impairment (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics, Hepatic Impairment). These patients are generally more susceptible to drugs with potentially sedating effects, including cyclobenzaprine. Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride should be used with caution in subjects with mild hepatic impairment starting with a 5 mg dose and titrating slowly upward. Due to the lack of data in subjects with more severe hepatic insufficiency, the use of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride in subjects with moderate to severe impairment is not recommended.
Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride, especially when used with alcohol or other CNS depressants, may impair mental and/or physical abilities required for performance of hazardous tasks, such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle. In the elderly, the frequency and severity of adverse events associated with the use of cyclobenzaprine, with or without concomitant medications, is increased. In elderly patients, cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride should be initiated with a 5 mg dose and titrated slowly upward. Patients should be cautioned about the risk of serotonin syndrome with the concomitant use of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride and other drugs, such as SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, tramadol, bupropion, meperidine, verapamil, or MAO inhibitors. Patients should be advised of the signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome, and be instructed to seek medical care immediately if they experience these symptoms (see WARNINGS, and see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).
Cyclobenzaprine may have life-threatening interactions with MAO inhibitors (see
CONTRAINDICATIONS). Postmarketing cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported during combined use of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride and other drugs, such as SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, tramadol, bupropion, meperidine, verapamil, or MAO inhibitors. If concomitant treatment with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride and other serotonergic drugs is clinically warranted, careful observation is advised, particularly during treatment initiation or dose increases (see
Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride may enhance the effects of alcohol, barbiturates, and other CNS depressants.
Tricyclic antidepressants may block the antihypertensive action of guanethidine and similarly acting compounds.
Tricyclic antidepressants may enhance the seizure risk in patients taking tramadol. 2
2 ULTRAM ® (tramadol HCl tablets, PriCara, Division of Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) ULTRACET ® (tramadol HCl and acetaminophen tablets, PriCara, Division of Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.)
In rats treated with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride for up to 67 weeks at doses of approximately 5 to 40 times the maximum recommended human dose, pale, sometimes enlarged, livers were noted and there was a dose-related hepatocyte vacuolation with lipidosis. In the higher dose groups this microscopic change was seen after 26 weeks and even earlier in rats which died prior to 26 weeks; at lower doses, the change was not seen until after 26 weeks.
Cyclobenzaprine did not affect the onset, incidence or distribution of neoplasia in an 81-week study in the mouse or in a 105-week study in the rat.
At oral doses of up to 10 times the human dose, cyclobenzaprine did not adversely affect the reproductive performance or fertility of male or female rats. Cyclobenzaprine did not demonstrate mutagenic activity in the male mouse at dose levels of up to 20 times the human dose.
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