CLOPIDOGREL- clopidogrel bisulfate tablet, film coated
Westminster Pharmaceuticals, LLC
WARNING: DIMINISHED ANTIPLATELET EFFECT IN PATIENTS WITH TWO LOSS-OF-FUNCTION ALLELES OF THE CYP2C19 GENE
The effectiveness of clopidogrel results from its antiplatelet activity, which is dependent on its conversion to an active metabolite by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, principally CYP2C19 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Clopdigorel at recommended doses forms less of the active metabolite and so has a reduced effect on platelet activity in patients who are homozygous for nonfunctional alleles of the CYP2C19 gene, (termed “CYP2C19 poor metabolizers”). Tests are available to identify patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)]. Consider use of another platelet P2Y12 inhibitor in patients identified as CYP2C19 poor metabolizers.
- Clopidogrel is indicated to reduce the rate of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in patients with non–ST-segment elevation ACS (unstable angina [UA]/non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI]), including patients who are to be managed medically and those who are to be managed with coronary revascularization. Clopidogrel should be administered in conjunction with aspirin.
- Clopidogrel is indicated to reduce the rate of myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who are to be managed medically. Clopidogrel should be administered in conjunction with aspirin.
In patients with established peripheral arterial disease or with a history of recent myocardial infarction (MI) or recent stroke clopidogrel is indicated to reduce the rate of MI and stroke.
In patients who need an antiplatelet effect within hours, initiate clopidogrel with a single 300 mg oral loading dose and then continue at 75 mg once daily. Initiating clopidogrel without a loading dose will delay establishment of an antiplatelet effect by several days [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14.1)].
- Clopidogrel Tablets, USP 75 mg tablets: Pink colored, round shaped, biconvex, film coated tablets de-bossed on one side with SG and 124 on other side.
- Clopidogrel Tablets, USP 300 mg tablets: Pink colored, Modified oval shaped, film coated tablets de-bossed on one side with SG and 121 on other side.
Clopidogrel is contraindicated in patients with active pathological bleeding such as peptic ulcer or intracranial hemorrhage.
Clopidogrel is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis) to clopidogrel or any component of the product [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Clopidogrel is a prodrug. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is achieved through an active metabolite. The metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite can be impaired by genetic variations in CYP2C19 [see Boxed Warning].
The metabolism of clopidogrel can also be impaired by drugs that inhibit CYP2C19, such as omeprazole or esomeprazole. Avoid concomitant use of clopidogrel with omeprazole or esomeprazole because both significantly reduce the antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Thienopyridines, including clopidogrel, increase the risk of bleeding.
Thienopyridines inhibit platelet aggregation for the lifetime of the platelet (7 to 10 days). Because the half-life of clopidogrel’s active metabolite is short, it may be possible to restore hemostasis by administering exogenous platelets; however, platelet transfusions within 4 hours of the loading dose or 2 hours of the maintenance dose may be less effective.
Discontinuation of clopidogrel increases the risk of cardiovascular events. If clopidogrel must be temporarily discontinued (e.g., to treat bleeding or for surgery with a major risk of bleeding), restart it as soon as possible. When possible, interrupt therapy with clopidogrel for five days prior to such surgery. Resume clopidogrel as soon as hemostasis is achieved.
TTP, sometimes fatal, has been reported following use of clopidogrel, sometimes after a short exposure (<2 weeks). TTP is a serious condition that requires urgent treatment including plasmapheresis (plasma exchange). It is characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (schistocytes [fragmented RBCs] seen on peripheral smear), neurological findings, renal dysfunction, and fever [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Hypersensitivity including rash, angioedema or hematologic reaction has been reported in patients receiving clopidogrel, including patients with a history of hypersensitivity or hematologic reaction to other thienopyridines [see Contraindications (4.2) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
The following serious adverse reactions are discussed below and elsewhere in the labeling:
- Bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions and durations of follow- up, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Clopidogrel has been evaluated for safety in more than 54,000 patients, including over 21,000 patients treated for one year or more. The clinically important adverse reactions observed in trials comparing clopidogrel plus aspirin to placebo plus aspirin and trials comparing clopidogrel alone to aspirin alone are discussed below.
In CURE, clopidogrel use with aspirin was associated with an increase in major bleeding (primarily gastrointestinal and at puncture sites) compared to placebo with aspirin (see Table 1). The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (0.1%) and fatal bleeding (0.2%) were the same in both groups. Other bleeding events that were reported more frequently in the clopidogrel group were epistaxis, hematuria, and bruise.
The overall incidence of bleeding is described in Table 1.
|Event||Clopidogrel (+ aspirin) (n=6,259)||Placebo (+ aspirin) (n=6,303)|
|Major bleeding *||3.7||2.7|
|5 g/dL hemoglobin drop||0.9||0.9|
|Requiring surgical intervention||0.7||0.7|
|Requiring transfusion (≥4 units)||1.2||1.0|
|Other major bleeding||1.6||1.0|
|Intraocular bleeding with significant loss of vision||0.05||0.03|
|Requiring 2-3 units of blood||1.3||0.9|
|Minor bleeding †||5.1||2.4|
In COMMIT, similar rates of major bleeding were observed in the clopidogrel and placebo groups, both of which also received aspirin (see Table 2).
|Type of Bleeding||Clopidogrel (+ aspirin) (n=22,961)||Placebo (+ aspirin) (n=22,891)||p-value|
|Major * noncerebral or cerebral bleeding||0.6||0.5||0.59|
|Other noncerebral bleeding (nonmajor)||3.6||3.1||0.005|
|Any noncerebral bleeding||3.9||3.4||0.004|
CAPRIE (Clopidogrel vs Aspirin)
In CAPRIE, gastrointestinal hemorrhage occurred at a rate of 2.0% in those taking clopidogrel versus 2.7% in those taking aspirin; bleeding requiring hospitalization occurred in 0.7% and 1.1%, respectively. The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage was 0.4% for clopidogrel compared to 0.5% for aspirin.
Other bleeding events that were reported more frequently in the clopidogrel group were epistaxis and hematoma.
Other Adverse Events
In CURE and CHARISMA, which compared clopidogrel plus aspirin to aspirin alone, there was no difference in the rate of adverse events (other than bleeding) between clopidogrel and placebo.
In CAPRIE, which compared clopidogrel to aspirin, pruritus was more frequently reported in those taking clopidogrel. No other difference in the rate of adverse events (other than bleeding) was reported.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of clopidogrel. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of an unknown size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Hemorrhages, including those with fatal outcome, have been reported in patients treated with clopidogrel.
- Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia/pancytopenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), acquired hemophilia A
- Gastrointestinal disorders: Colitis (including ulcerative or lymphocytic colitis), pancreatitis, stomatitis, gastric/duodenal ulcer, diarrhea
- General disorders and administration site condition: Fever
- Hepatobiliary disorders: Acute liver failure, hepatitis (noninfectious), abnormal liver function test
- Immune system disorders: Hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactoid reactions, serum sickness, insulin autoimmune syndrome, which can lead to severe hypoglycemia.
- Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders: Myalgia, arthralgia, arthritis
- Nervous system disorders: Taste disorders, headache, ageusia
- Psychiatric disorders: Confusion, hallucinations
- Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Bronchospasm, interstitial pneumonitis, eosinophilic pneumonia
- Renal and urinary disorders: Increased creatinine levels
- Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Maculopapular, erythematous or exfoliative rash, urticaria, bullous dermatitis, eczema, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), angioedema, drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), erythema multiforme, lichen planus, generalized pruritus
- Vascular disorders: Vasculitis, hypotension
Clopidogrel is metabolized to its active metabolite in part by CYP2C19. Concomitant use of drugs that inhibit the activity of this enzyme results in reduced plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in platelet inhibition [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Omeprazole or Esomeprazole
Avoid concomitant use of clopidogrel with omeprazole or esomeprazole. In clinical studies, omeprazole was shown to reduce significantly the antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel when given concomitantly or 12 hours apart. A similar reduction in antiplatelet activity was observed with esomeprazole when given concomitantly with clopidogrel. Dexlansoprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole had less effect on the antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel than did omeprazole or esomeprazole [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
DrugInserts.com provides trustworthy package insert and label information about marketed drugs as submitted by manufacturers to the US Food and Drug Administration. Package information is not reviewed or updated separately by DrugInserts.com. Every individual package label entry contains a unique identifier which can be used to secure further details directly from the US National Institutes of Health and/or the FDA.