Clobazam: Package Insert and Label Information
CLOBAZAM — clobazam suspension
Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
WARNING: RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH OPIOIDS
WARNING: RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH OPIOIDS; ABUSE, MISUSE, AND ADDICTION; and DEPENDENCE AND WITHDRAWAL REACTIONS
- Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Interactions (7.1)].
- The use of benzodiazepines, including clobazam, exposes users to risks of abuse, misuse, and addiction, which can lead to overdose or death. Abuse and misuse of benzodiazepines commonly involve concomitant use of other medications, alcohol, and/or illicit substances, which is associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse outcomes. Before prescribing clobazam and throughout treatment, assess each patient’s risk for abuse, misuse, and addiction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
- The continued use of benzodiazepines, including clobazam oral suspension, may lead to clinically significant physical dependence. The risks of dependence and withdrawal increase with longer treatment duration and higher daily dose. Abrupt discontinuation or rapid dosage reduction of clobazam after continued use may precipitate acute withdrawal reactions, which can be life-threatening. To reduce the risk of withdrawal reactions, use a gradual taper to discontinue clobazam or reduce the dosage [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Clobazam oral suspension is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients 2 years of age or older.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Dosing Information
A daily dose of clobazam greater than 5 mg should be administered in divided doses twice daily; a 5 mg daily dose can be administered as a single dose. Dose patients according to body weight. Individualize dosing within each body weight group, based on clinical efficacy and tolerability. Each dose in Table 1 (e.g., 5 to 20 mg in ≤30 kg weight group) has been shown to be effective, although effectiveness increases with increasing dose [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Do not proceed with dose escalation more rapidly than weekly, because serum concentrations of clobazam and its active metabolite require 5 and 9 days, respectively, to reach steady-state.
|≤ 30 kg Body Weight||> 30 kg Body Weight|
|Starting Dose||5 mg||10 mg|
|Starting Day 7||10 mg||20 mg|
|Starting Day 14||20 mg||40 mg|
2.2 Discontinuation or Dosage Reduction of Clobazam
To reduce the risk of withdrawal reactions, increased seizure frequency, and status epilepticus, use a gradual taper to discontinue clobazam or reduce the dosage. Taper by decreasing the total daily dose by 5 to 10 mg/day on a weekly basis until discontinued. If a patient develops withdrawal reactions, consider pausing the taper or increasing the dosage to the previous tapered dosage level. Subsequently decrease the dosage more slowly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
2.3 Important Administration Instructions
Instruct patients to read the “Instructions for Use” carefully for complete directions on how to properly dose and administer clobazam oral suspension.
Clobazam Oral Suspension Oral Administration
Clobazam oral suspension can be taken with or without food [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Shake clobazam oral suspension well before every administration. When administering the oral suspension, use only the oral dosing syringe provided with the product. Each carton includes two syringes, but only one syringe should be used for dosing. The second oral syringe is reserved as a replacement in case the first syringe is damaged or lost. Insert the provided adapter firmly into the neck of the bottle before first use and keep the adapter in place for the duration of the usage of the bottle. To withdraw the dose, insert the dosing syringe into the adapter and invert the bottle then slowly pull back the plunger to prescribed dose. After removing the syringe from the bottle adapter, slowly squirt clobazam oral suspension into the corner of the patient’s mouth. Replace the cap after each use. The cap fits over the adapter when the adapter is properly placed. See clobazam oral suspension “Instructions for Use” for complete instruction on how to properly dose and administer the clobazam oral suspension.
2.4 Dosage Adjustments in Geriatric Patients
Plasma concentrations at any given dose are generally higher in the elderly: proceed slowly with dose escalation. The starting dose should be 5 mg/day for all elderly patients. Then titrate elderly patients according to weight, but to half the dose presented in Table 1, as tolerated. If necessary and based upon clinical response, an additional titration to the maximum dose (20 mg/day or 40 mg/day, depending on weight) may be started on day 21 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
2.5 Dosage Adjustments in CYP2C19 Poor Metabolizers
In CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, levels of N-desmethylclobazam, clobazam’s active metabolite, will be increased. Therefore, in patients known to be CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, the starting dose should be 5 mg/day and dose titration should proceed slowly according to weight, but to half the dose presented in Table 1, as tolerated. If necessary and based upon clinical response, an additional titration to the maximum dose (20 mg/day or 40 mg/day, depending on the weight group) may be started on day 21 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)].
2.6 Patients with Renal Impairment
No dose adjustment is required for patients with mild and moderate renal impairment.
There is no experience with clobazam in patients with severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease (ESRD). It is not known if clobazam or its active metabolite, N-desmethylclobazam, is dialyzable [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
2.7 Dosage Adjustments in Patients with Hepatic Impairment
Clobazam is hepatically metabolized; however, there are limited data to characterize the effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of clobazam. For this reason, proceed slowly with dosing escalations. For patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 5 to 9), the starting dose should be 5 mg/day in both weight groups. Then titrate patients according to weight, but to half the dose presented in Table 1, as tolerated. If necessary and based upon clinical response, start an additional titration on day 21 to the maximum dose (20 mg/day or 40 mg/day, depending on the weight group). There is inadequate information about metabolism of clobazam in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Therefore no dosing recommendation in those patients can be given [see Use in Specific Populations (8.8), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Oral Suspension: 2.5 mg/mL for oral administration. Each bottle contains 120 mL of an off-white suspension.
Clobazam is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to the drug or its ingredients. Hypersensitivity reactions have included serious dermatological reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Risks from Concomitant Use with Opioids
Concomitant use of benzodiazepines, including clobazam, and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of benzodiazepines and opioids for patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioids alone. If a decision is made to prescribe clobazam concomitantly with opioids, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use, and follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when clobazam is used with opioids [see DRUG INTERACTIONS (7.1)].
5.2 Abuse, Misuse, and Addiction
The use of benzodiazepines, including clobazam, exposes users to the risks of abuse, misuse, and addiction, which can lead to overdose or death. Abuse and misuse of benzodiazepines often (but not always) involve the use of doses greater than the maximum recommended dosage andcommonly involve concomitant use of other medications, alcohol, and/or illicit substances, which is associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse outcomes, including respiratory depression, overdose, or death [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2)].
Before prescribing clobazam and throughout treatment, assess each patient’s risk for abuse, misuse, and addiction (e.g., using a standardized screening tool). Use of clobazam, particularly in patients at elevated risk, necessitates counseling about the risks and proper use of clobazam along with monitoring for signs and symptoms of abuse, misuse, and addiction. Prescribe the lowest effective dosage; avoid or minimize concomitant use of CNS depressants and other substances associated with abuse, misuse, and addiction (e.g., opioid analgesics, stimulants); and advise patients on the proper disposal of unused drug. If a substance use disorder is suspected, evaluate the patient and institute (or refer them for) early treatment, as appropriate.
5.3 Dependence and Withdrawal Reactions
To reduce the risk of withdrawal reactions, use a gradual taper to discontinue clobazam or reduce the dosage [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
Patients at an increased risk of withdrawal adverse reactions after benzodiazepine discontinuation or rapid dosage reduction include those who take higher dosages, and those who have had longer durations of use.
Acute Withdrawal Reactions
The continued use of benzodiazepines, including clobazam, may lead to clinically significant physical dependence. Abrupt discontinuation or rapid dosage reduction of clobazam after continued use, or administration of flumazenil (a benzodiazepine antagonist) may precipitate acute withdrawal reactions, which can be life-threatening (e.g., seizures) [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
Protracted Withdrawal Syndrome
In some cases, benzodiazepine users have developed a protracted withdrawal syndrome with withdrawal symptoms lasting weeks to more than 12 months [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
5.4 Potentiation of Sedation from Concomitant Use with Central Nervous System Depressants
Since clobazam has a central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect, patients or their caregivers should be cautioned against simultaneous use with other CNS depressant drugs or alcohol, and cautioned that the effects of other CNS depressant drugs or alcohol may be potentiated [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].
5.5 Somnolence or Sedation
Clobazam causes somnolence and sedation. In clinical trials, somnolence or sedation was reported at all effective doses and was dose-related.
In general, somnolence and sedation begin within the first month of treatment and may diminish with continued treatment. Prescribers should monitor patients for somnolence and sedation, particularly with concomitant use of other central nervous system depressants. Prescribers should caution patients against engaging in hazardous activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating dangerous machinery or motor vehicles, until the effect of clobazam is known.
5.6 Serious Dermatological Reactions
Serious skin reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), have been reported with clobazam in both children and adults during the postmarketing period. Patients should be closely monitored for signs or symptoms of SJS/TEN, especially during the first 8 weeks of treatment initiation or when re-introducing therapy. Clobazam should be discontinued at the first sign of rash, unless the rash is clearly not drug-related. If signs or symptoms suggest SJS/TEN, use of this drug should not be resumed and alternative therapy should be considered [see Contraindications (4)].
5.7 Suicidal Behavior and Ideation
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including clobazam, increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior.
Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono- and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to one of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted relative risk 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared to patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence rate of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED-treated patients was 0.43%, compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase of approximately one case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were four suicides in drug-treated patients in the trials and none in placebo-treated patients, but the number is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.
The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as one week after starting drug treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed.
The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanisms of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5 to 100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed. Table 2 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs.
|Indication||Placebo Patients with Events per 1000 Patients||Drug Patients with Events per 1000 Patients||Relative Risk : Incidence of Drug Events in Drug Patients / Incidence in Placebo Patients||Risk Difference : Additional Drug Patients with Events per 1000 Patients|
The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behavior was higher in clinical trials for epilepsy than in clinical trials for psychiatric or other conditions, but the absolute risk differences were similar for the epilepsy and psychiatric indications.
Anyone considering prescribing clobazam or any other AED must balance the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, the prescriber needs to consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated.
Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed that AEDs increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of the signs and symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior, or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior, or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers.
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