CLINDAMYCIN PHOSPHATE AND TRETINOIN- clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel
Actavis Pharma, Inc.
Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel 1.2% / 0.025% is indicated for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients 12 years or older.
At bedtime, squeeze a pea-sized amount of medication onto one fingertip, dot onto the chin, cheeks, nose, and forehead, then gently rub over the entire face. Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel should be kept away from the eyes, the mouth, angles of the nose, and mucous membranes.
Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel is not for oral, ophthalmic, or intravaginal use.
Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel, a combination of a lincosamide antibiotic and a retinoid, contains clindamycin phosphate, USP 1.2% and tretinoin, USP 0.025%, formulated as a topical gel. Each gram of clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel contains, as dispensed, 10 mg (1%) clindamycin as phosphate, USP, and 0.25 mg (0.025%) tretinoin, USP in an aqueous based gel. Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel is available in 30 gram and 60 gram tubes.
Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel is contraindicated in patients with regional enteritis, ulcerative colitis, or history of antibiotic-associated colitis.
Systemic absorption of clindamycin has been demonstrated following topical use of this product. Diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and colitis (including pseudomembranous colitis) have been reported with the use of topical clindamycin. When significant diarrhea occurs, clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel should be discontinued.
Severe colitis has occurred following oral or parenteral administration of clindamycin with an onset of up to several weeks following cessation of therapy. Antiperistaltic agents such as opiates and diphenoxylate with atropine may prolong and/or worsen severe colitis. Severe colitis may result in death.
Studies indicate a toxin(s) produced by clostridia is one primary cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. The colitis is usually characterized by severe persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps and may be associated with the passage of blood and mucus. Stool cultures for Clostridium difficile and stool assay for C. difficile toxin may be helpful diagnostically.
Exposure to sunlight, including sunlamps, should be avoided during the use of clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel, and patients with sunburn should be advised not to use the product until fully recovered because of heightened susceptibility to sunlight as a result of the use of tretinoin. Patients who may be required to have considerable sun exposure due to occupation and those with inherent sensitivity to the sun should exercise particular caution. Daily use of sunscreen products and protective apparel (e.g., a hat) are recommended. Weather extremes, such as wind or cold, also may be irritating to patients under treatment with clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel.
Because clinical trials are conducted under prescribed conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trial may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse reactions that appear to be related to drug use for approximating rates.
The safety data presented in Table 1 (below) reflects exposure to clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel in 1,853 patients with acne vulgaris. Patients were 12 years and older and were treated once daily for 12 weeks. Adverse reactions that were reported in ≥ 1% of patients treated with clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel were compared to adverse reactions in patients treated with clindamycin phosphate 1.2% in vehicle gel, tretinoin 0.025% in vehicle gel, and the vehicle gel alone:
|N (%)||N (%)||N (%)||N (%)|
|Note: Formulations used in all treatment arms were in the clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin vehicle gel.|
|PATIENTS WITH AT LEAST ONE AR||497 (27)||342 (24)||225 (27)||91 (22)|
|Nasopharyngitis||65 (4)||64 (5)||16 (2)||5 (1)|
|Pharyngolaryngeal pain||29 (2)||18 (1)||5 (1)||7 (2)|
|Dry skin||23 (1)||7 (1)||3 (<1)||0 (0)|
|Cough||19 (1)||21 (2)||9 (1)||2 (1)|
|Sinusitis||19 (1)||19 (1)||15 (2)||4 (1)|
Cutaneous safety and tolerance evaluations were conducted at each study visit in all of the clinical trials by assessment of erythema, scaling, itching, burning, and stinging:
|Local Reaction||Baseline||End of Treatment|
|N (%)||N (%)|
|Erythema||636 (35)||416 (26)|
|Scaling||237 (13)||280 (17)|
|Itching||189 (10)||70 (4)|
|Burning||38 (2)||56 (4)|
|Stinging||33 (2)||27 (2)|
At each study visit, application site reactions on a scale of 0 (none), 1 (mild), 2 (moderate), and 3 (severe), and the mean scores were calculated for each of the local skin reactions. In Studies 1 and 2, 1277 subjects enrolled with moderate to severe acne, 854 subjects treated with clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel and 423 treated with vehicle. Analysis over the twelve week period demonstrated that cutaneous irritation scores for erythema, scaling, itching, burning, and stinging peaked at two weeks of therapy, and were slightly higher for the clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin-treated group, decreasing thereafter.
One open-label 12-month safety study for clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel showed a similar adverse reaction profile as seen in the 12-week studies. Eighteen out of 442 subjects (4%) reported gastrointestinal symptoms.
Concomitant topical medication, medicated or abrasive soaps and cleansers, soaps and cosmetics that have a strong drying effect, and products with high concentrations of alcohol, astringents, spices or lime should be used with caution. When used with clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel, there may be increased skin irritation.
Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel should not be used in combination with erythromycin-containing products due to its clindamycin component. In vitro studies have shown antagonism between these two antimicrobials. The clinical significance of this in vitro antagonism is not known.
Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.
Pregnancy Category C. There are no well-controlled trials in pregnant women treated with clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel. Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel was tested for maternal and developmental toxicity in New Zealand White Rabbits with topical doses of 60, 180 and 600 mg/kg/day. Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel at 600 mg/kg/day (approximately 12 times the recommended clinical dose assuming 100% absorption and based on body surface area comparison) was considered to be the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity following dermal administration of clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel for two weeks prior to artificial insemination and continuing until gestation day 18, inclusive. For purposes of comparisons of the animal exposure to human exposure, the recommended clinical dose is defined as 1 g of clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel applied daily to a 60 kg person.
Teratology (Segment II) studies using clindamycin were performed orally in rats (up to 600 mg/kg/day) and mice (up to 100 mg/kg/day) (583 and 49 times amount of clindamycin in the recommended clinical dose based on a body surface area comparison, respectively) or with subcutaneous doses of clindamycin up to 180 mg/kg/day (175 and 88 times the amount of clindamycin in the recommended clinical dose based on a body surface area comparison, respectively) revealed no evidence of teratogenicity.
In oral Segment III studies in rats with tretinoin, decreased survival of neonates and growth retardation were observed at doses in excess of 2 mg/kg/day (~ 78 times the recommended clinical dose assuming 100% absorption and based on body surface area comparison).
With widespread use of any drug, a small number of birth defect reports associated temporally with the administration of the drug would be expected by chance alone. Thirty cases of temporally associated congenital malformations have been reported during two decades of clinical use of another formulation of topical tretinoin. Although no definite pattern of teratogenicity and no causal association have been established from these cases, 5 of the reports describe the rare birth defect category, holoprosencephaly (defects associated with incomplete midline development of the forebrain). The significance of these spontaneous reports in terms of risk to the fetus is not known.
Dermal tretinoin has been shown to be fetotoxic in rabbits when administered in doses 40 times the recommended human clinical dose based on a body surface area comparison. Oral tretinoin has been shown to be fetotoxic in rats when administered in doses 78 times the recommended clinical dose based on a body surface area comparison.
It is not known whether clindamycin is excreted in human milk following use of clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel. However, orally and parenterally administered clindamycin has been reported to appear in breast milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. It is not known whether tretinoin is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness of clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel in pediatric patients under the age of 12 have not been established.
Clinical trials of clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel included patients 12 to 17 years of age. [See Clinical Studies (14)]
Clinical studies of clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.
Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel 1.2% / 0.025%, is an antibiotic and retinoid combination gel product with two active ingredients. Clindamycin phosphate, USP is a water-soluble ester of the semi-synthetic antibiotic produced by a 7(S)-chloro-substitution of the 7(R)-hydroxyl group of the parent antibiotic lincomycin.
The chemical name for clindamycin phosphate, USP is Methyl 7-chloro-6,7,8-trideoxy-6-(1-methyl-trans -4- propyl-L-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamido)-1-thio-L-threo -α-D-galacto -octopyranoside 2-(dihydrogen phosphate). The structural formula for clindamycin phosphate, USP is represented below:
Clindamycin phosphate, USP:
Molecular Formula: C18 H34 ClN2 O8 PS Molecular Weight: 504.97
The chemical name for tretinoin, USP is 3,7-Dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-2,4,6,8- nonatetraenoic acid (all-trans form). The structural formula for tretinoin, USP is represented below:
Molecular Formula: C20 H28 O2 Molecular Weight: 300.44
Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel 1.2% / 0.025% contains the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous citric acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, edetate disodium, hydroxyethyl cellulose, glycerin, methylparaben, polysorbate 80, propylparaben, purified water, tromethamine and xanthan gum.
DrugInserts.com provides trustworthy package insert and label information about marketed drugs as submitted by manufacturers to the US Food and Drug Administration. Package information is not reviewed or updated separately by DrugInserts.com. Every individual package label entry contains a unique identifier which can be used to secure further details directly from the US National Institutes of Health and/or the FDA.