Clindamycin Hydrochloride: Package Insert and Label Information

CLINDAMYCIN HYDROCHLORIDE- clindamycin hydrochloride capsule
Lannett Company, Inc.

Rx only

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin hydrochloride and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

WARNING

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin HCl and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon, leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

Because clindamycin HCl therapy has been associated with severe colitis which may end fatally, it should be reserved for serious infections where less toxic antimicrobial agents are inappropriate, as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. It should not be used in patients with nonbacterial infections such as most upper respiratory tract infections.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B, which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

DESCRIPTION

Clindamycin hydrochloride is the hydrated hydrochloride salt of clindamycin. Clindamycin is a semisynthetic antibiotic produced by a 7(S)-chloro-substitution of the 7(R)-hydroxyl group of the parent compound lincomycin.

Clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, USP contain clindamycin hydrochloride equivalent to 75 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg of clindamycin.

Inactive ingredients: 75 mg — lactose monohydrate, corn starch, magnesium stearate, talc, D&C Yellow No. 10, FD&C Green No. 3, and gelatin; 150 mg — lactose monohydrate, corn starch, magnesium stearate, talc, D&C Yellow No. 10, FD&C Green No. 3, D&C Red No. 33, FD&C Blue No. 1, titanium dioxide, and gelatin; 300 mg — lactose monohydrate, corn starch, magnesium stearate, talc, D&C Red No. 33, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Green No. 3, titanium dioxide, and gelatin.

The capsule imprinting ink contains: shellac glaze in ethanol, titanium dioxide, isopropyl alcohol, ammonium hydroxide, n-butyl alcohol, propylene glycol, and simethicone.

The structural formula is represented below:

clindamycin-hcl-molecular-structure
(click image for full-size original)

The chemical name for clindamycin hydrochloride is Methyl 7-chloro-6,7,8-trideoxy-6-(1-methyl-trans -4-propyl-L-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamido)-1-thio-L-threo -╬▒-D-galacto -octopyranoside monohydrochloride.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Human Pharmacology

Absorption

Pharmacokinetic studies with a 150 mg oral dose of clindamycin hydrochloride in 24 normal adult volunteers showed that clindamycin was rapidly absorbed after oral administration. An average peak serum concentration of 2.50 mcg/mL was reached in 45 minutes; serum concentrations averaged 1.51 mcg/mL at 3 hours and 0.70 mcg/mL at 6 hours. Absorption of an oral dose is virtually complete (90%), and the concomitant administration of food does not appreciably modify the serum concentrations; serum concentrations have been uniform and predictable from person to person and dose to dose. Pharmacokinetic studies following multiple doses of clindamycin HCl for up to 14 days show no evidence of accumulation or altered metabolism of drug. Doses of up to 2 grams of clindamycin per day for 14 days have been well tolerated by healthy volunteers, except that the incidence of gastrointestinal side effects is greater with the higher doses.

Distribution

Concentrations of clindamycin in the serum increased linearly with increased dose. Serum concentrations exceed the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) for most indicated organisms for at least six hours following administration of the usually recommended doses. Clindamycin is widely distributed in body fluids and tissues (including bones). No significant concentrations of clindamycin are attained in the cerebrospinal fluid, even in the presence of inflamed meninges.

Metabolism

In vitro studies in human liver and intestinal microsomes indicated that clindamycin is predominantly metabolized by Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), with minor contribution from CYP3A5, to form clindamycin sulfoxide and a minor metabolite, N-┬şdesmethylclindamycin.

Excretion
The average biological half-life is 2.4 hours. Approximately 10% of the bioactivity is excreted in the urine and 3.6% in the feces; the remainder is excreted as bioinactive metabolites.

Specific Populations
Patients with Renal Impairment
Serum half-life of clindamycin is increased slightly in patients with markedly reduced renal function. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are not effective in removing clindamycin from the serum.

Elderly Patients
Pharmacokinetic studies in elderly volunteers (61-79 years) and younger adults (18-39 years) indicate that age alone does not alter clindamycin pharmacokinetics (clearance, elimination half-life, volume of distribution, and area under the serum concentration-time curve) after IV administration of clindamycin phosphate. After oral administration of clindamycin hydrochloride, the average elimination half-life is increased to approximately 4.0 hours (range 3.4-5.1 h) in the elderly compared to 3.2 hours (range 2.1-4.2 h) in younger adults. The extent of absorption, however, is not different between age groups and no dosage alteration is necessary for the elderly with normal hepatic function and normal (age-adjusted) renal function1.

Obese Pediatric Patients Aged 2 to Less than 18 Years and Obese Adults Aged 18 to 20 Years
An analysis of pharmacokinetic data in obese pediatric patients aged 2 to less than 18 years and obese adults aged 18 to 20 years demonstrated that clindamycin clearance and volume of distribution, normalized by total body weight, are comparable regardless of obesity.

Microbiology

Mechanism of Action

Clindamycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 23S RNA of the 50S subunit of the ribosome. Clindamycin is bacteriostatic.

Resistance

Resistance to clindamycin is most often caused by modification of specific bases of the 23S ribosomal RNA. Cross-resistance between clindamycin and lincomycin is complete. Because the binding sites for these antibacterial drugs overlap, cross-resistance is sometimes observed among lincosamides, macrolides and streptogramin B. Macrolide-inducible resistance to clindamycin occurs in some isolates of macrolide-resistant bacteria. Macrolide-resistant isolates of staphylococci and beta-hemolytic streptococci should be screened for induction of clindamycin resistance using the D-zone test.

Antimicrobial Activity

Clindamycin has been shown to be active against most of the isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE):

Gram-positive bacteria

Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains)
Streptococcus pyogenes

Anaerobic bacteria

Clostridium perfringens
Fusobacterium necrophorum
Fusobacterium nucleatum
Peptostreptococcus anaerobius
Prevotella melaninogenica

The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. At least 90 percent of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for clindamycin against isolates of a similar genus or organism group. However, the efficacy of clindamycin in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria has not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.

Gram-positive bacteria

Staphylococcus epidermidis (methicillin-susceptible strains)
Streptococcus agalactiae
Streptococcus anginosus
Streptococcus mitis
Streptococcus oralis

Anaerobic bacteria

Actinomyces israelii
Clostridium clostridioforme
Eggerthella lenta
Finegoldia (Peptostreptococcus) magna
Micromonas (Peptostreptococcus) micros
Prevotella bivia
Prevotella intermedia
Propionibacterium acnes

Susceptibility Testing

For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria.

Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis, as described in the BOXED WARNING, before selecting clindamycin, the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (e.g., erythromycin).

Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis, and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tubo-ovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis, and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.

Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.

Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.

Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections.

Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin HCl and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin HCl capsules, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Clindamycin HCl is contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to preparations containing clindamycin or lincomycin.

WARNINGS

See BOXED WARNING

Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, USP, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon, leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B, which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Anaphylactic and Severe Hypersensitivity Reactions

Anaphylactic shock and anaphylactic reactions have been reported (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Severe hypersensitivity reactions, including severe skin reactions such as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), some with fatal outcome, have been reported (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

In case of such an anaphylactic or severe hypersensitivity reaction, discontinue treatment permanently and institute appropriate therapy.

A careful inquiry should be made concerning previous sensitivities to drugs and other allergens.

Usage in Meningitis — Since clindamycin does not diffuse adequately into the cerebrospinal fluid, the drug should not be used in the treatment of meningitis.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency.

Clindamycin HCl should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.

Clindamycin HCl should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.

Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.

The use of clindamycin HCl occasionally results in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms-particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation.

Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease.

Prescribing clindamycin HCl in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Information for Patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs, including clindamycin HCl, should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When clindamycin HCl is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by clindamycin HCl or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Laboratory Tests

During prolonged therapy, periodic liver and kidney function tests and blood counts should be performed.

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