The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during postmarketing use of gadoterate meglumine. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
|System Organ Class||Adverse Reaction|
|Cardiac Disorders||bradycardia, tachycardia, arrhythmia|
|Immune System Disorders||hypersensitivity / anaphylactoid reactions including cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, cyanosis, pharyngeal edema, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, angioedema, conjunctivitis, ocular hyperemia, eyelid edema, lacrimation increased, hyperhidrosis, urticaria|
|Nervous System Disorders||coma, convulsion, syncope, presyncope, parosmia, tremor|
|Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders||muscle contracture, muscle weakness|
|Gastrointestinal Disorders||diarrhea, salivary hypersecretion|
|General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions||malaise, fever Adverse events with variable onset and duration have been reported after GBCA administration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. These include fatigue, asthenia, pain syndromes, and heterogeneous clusters of symptoms in the neurological, cutaneous, and musculoskeletal systems.|
|Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders||NSF, in patients whose reports were confounded by the receipt of other GBCAs or in situations where receipt of other GBCAs could not be ruled out.No unconfounded cases of NSF have been reported with gadoterate meglumine. Gadolinium-associated plaques.|
|Vascular Disorders||superficial phlebitis|
Gadoterate does not interfere with serum and plasma calcium measurements determined by colorimetric assays. Specific drug interaction studies with gadoterate meglumine have not been conducted.
GBCAs cross the human placenta and result in fetal exposure and gadolinium retention. The human data on the association between GBCAs and adverse fetal outcomes are limited and inconclusive (see Data). In animal reproduction studies, there were no adverse developmental effects observed in rats or rabbits with intravenous administration of gadoterate meglumine during organogenesis at doses up to 16 and 10 times, respectively, the recommended human dose (see Data). Because of the potential risks of gadolinium to the fetus, use Clariscan only if imaging is essential during pregnancy and cannot be delayed.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population(s) are unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Contrast enhancement is visualized in the placenta and fetal tissues after maternal GBCA administration.
Cohort studies and case reports on exposure to GBCAs during pregnancy have not reported a clear association between GBCAs and adverse effects in the exposed neonates. However, a retrospective cohort study, comparing pregnant women who had a GBCA MRI to pregnant women who did not have an MRI, reported a higher occurrence of stillbirths and neonatal deaths in the group receiving GBCA MRI. Limitations of this study include a lack of comparison with non-contrast MRI and lack of information about the material indication for MRI. Overall, these data preclude a reliable evaluation of the potential risk of adverse fetal outcomes with the use of GBCAs in pregnancy.
GBCAs administered to pregnant non-human primates (0.1 mmol/kg on gestational days 85 and 135) result in measurable gadolinium concentration in the offspring in bone, brain, skin, liver, kidney, and spleen for at least 7 months. GBCAs administered to pregnant mice (2 mmol/kg daily on gestational days 16 through 19) result in measurable gadolinium concentrations in the pups in bone, brain, kidney, liver, blood, muscle, and spleen at one-month postnatal age.
Gadoterate meglumine was administered in intravenous doses of 0, 2, 4 and 10 mmol/kg/day [3, 7 and 16 times the recommended human dose (RHD) based on body surface area (BSA)] to female rats for 14 days before mating, throughout the mating period and until gestation day (GD) 17. Pregnant rabbits were administered gadoterate meglumine in intravenous doses of 0, 1, 3 and 7 mmol/kg/day (3, 10 and 23 times the RHD based on BSA) from GD6 to GD19. No effects on embryo-fetal development were observed at doses up to 10 mmol/kg/day in rats and 3 mmol/kg/day in rabbits. Maternal toxicity was observed in rats at 10 mmol/kg/day and in rabbits at 7 mmol/kg/day. This maternal toxicity was characterized in rats by a slightly lower litter size and gravid uterus weight compared to the control group, and in rabbits by a reduction in body weight and food consumption.
There are no data on the presence of gadoterate in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. However, published lactation data on other GBCAs indicate that 0.01 to 0.04% of the maternal gadolinium dose is excreted in breast milk. Additionally, there is limited GBCA gastrointestinal absorption in the breastfed infant. Gadoterate is present in goat milk (see Data). The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Clariscan and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Clariscan or from the underlying maternal condition.
Nonclinical data demonstrate that gadoterate is detected in goat milk in amounts < 0.1% of the dose intravenously administered. Furthermore, in rats, absorption of gadoterate via the gastrointestinal tract is poor (1.2% of the administered dose was absorbed and eliminated in urine).
The safety and efficacy of gadoterate meglumine at a single dose of 0.1 mmol/kg have been established in pediatric patients from birth (term neonates ≥ 37 weeks gestational age) to 17 years of age based on clinical data in 133 pediatric patients 2 years of age and older, and clinical data in 52 pediatric patients birth to less than 2 years of age that supported extrapolation from adult data [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Adverse reactions in pediatric patients were similar to those reported in adults [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. No dosage adjustment according to age is necessary in pediatric patients [See Dosage and Administration (2.1), Pharmacokinetics (12.3)]. The safety of gadoterate meglumine has not been established in preterm neonates.
No cases of NSF associated with gadoterate meglumine or any other GBCA have been identified in pediatric patients age 6 years and younger [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Normal estimated GFR (eGFR) is approximately 30 mL/minute/1.73 m2 at birth and increases to adult values by 2 years of age.
Juvenile Animal Data
Single and repeat-dose toxicity studies in neonatal and juvenile rats did not reveal findings suggestive of a specific risk for use in pediatric patients including term neonates and infants.
In clinical studies of gadoterate meglumine, 900 patients were 65 years of age and over, and 304 patients were 75 years of age and over. No overall differences in safety or efficacy were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. In general, use of Clariscan in elderly patients should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of impaired renal function and concomitant disease or other drug therapy. No age-related dosage adjustment is necessary.
No Clariscan dosage adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment. Gadoterate meglumine can be removed from the body by hemodialysis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Clariscan administered to healthy volunteers and to adult patients at cumulative doses up to 0.3 mmol/kg was tolerated in a manner similar to lower doses. Adverse reactions to overdosage with gadoterate meglumine have not been reported. Gadoterate meglumine can be removed from the body by hemodialysis [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Clariscan (gadoterate meglumine) is a paramagnetic macrocyclic ionic contrast agent administered for magnetic resonance imaging. The chemical name for gadoterate meglumine is D-glucitol, 1-deoxy-1-(methylamino)-, [1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaceto(4-)-.kappa.N1, .kappa.N4, .kappa.N7, .kappa.N10, .kappa.O1, .kappa.O4, .kappa.O7, .kappa.O10]gadolinate(1-)(1:1); it has a formula weight of 753.9 g/mol and empirical formula of C23 H42 O13 N5 Gd (anhydrous basis).
The structural formula of gadoterate meglumine in solution is as follows:
CAS Registry No. 92943-93-6
Clariscan Injection is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, clear, colorless to yellow, aqueous solution of 0.5 mmol/mL of gadoterate meglumine. Each vial and pre-filled syringe contains 2.5 mmol per 5 mL, 5 mmol per 10 mL, 7.5 mmol per 15 mL and 10 mmol per 20 mL. No preservative is added. Each mL of Clariscan contains 376.9 mg of gadoterate meglumine, 0.25 mg of DOTA and water for injection. Clariscan has a pH of 6.5 to 8.0.
The main physiochemical properties of Clariscan are provided below:
|Density @ 20°C||1.1753 g/cm3|
|Viscosity @ 20°C||3.4 mPa.s|
|Viscosity @ 37°C||2.4 mPa.s|
|Osmolality||1350 mOsm/kg water|
The thermodynamic stability constants for gadoterate (log Ktherm and log Kcond at pH 7.4) are 25.6 and 19.3, respectively.
Gadoterate is a paramagnetic molecule that develops a magnetic moment when placed in a magnetic field. The magnetic moment enhances the relaxation rates of water protons in its vicinity, leading to an increase in signal intensity (brightness) of tissues.
In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), visualization of normal and pathological tissue depends in part on variations in the radiofrequency signal intensity that occurs with:
- differences in proton density
- differences of the spin-lattice or longitudinal relaxation times (T1)
- differences in the spin-spin or transverse relaxation time (T2)
When placed in a magnetic field, gadoterate shortens the T1 and T2 relaxation times in target tissues. At recommended doses, the effect is observed with greatest sensitivity in the T1-weighted sequences.
Gadoterate affects proton relaxation times and consequently the MR signal, and the contrast obtained is characterized by the relaxivity of the gadoterate molecule. The relaxivity values for gadoterate are similar across the spectrum of magnetic field strengths used in clinical MRI (0.2-1.5 T).
Disruption of the blood-brain barrier or abnormal vascularity allows distribution of gadoterate in lesions such as neoplasms, abscesses, and infarcts.
The pharmacokinetics of total gadolinium assessed up to 48 hours following an intravenously administered 0.1 mmol/kg dose of gadoterate meglumine in healthy adult subjects demonstrated a mean elimination half-life (reported as mean ± SD) of about 1.4 ± 0.2 hours and 2.0 ± 0.7 hours in female and male subjects, respectively. Similar pharmacokinetic profile and elimination half-life values were observed after intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadoterate meglumine followed 20 minutes later by a second injection of 0.2 mmol/kg (1.7 ± 0.3 hours and 1.9 ± 0.2 hours in female and male subjects, respectively).
The volume of distribution at steady state of total gadolinium in healthy subjects is 179 ± 26 and 211 ± 35 mL/kg in female and male subjects respectively, roughly equivalent to that of extracellular water. Gadoterate does not undergo protein binding in vitro. The extent of blood cell partitioning of gadoterate is not known.
Following GBCA administration, gadolinium is present for months or years in brain, bone, skin, and other organs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Gadoterate is not known to be metabolized.
Following a 0.1 mmol/kg dose of gadoterate meglumine, total gadolinium is excreted primarily in the urine with 72.9 ± 17.0% and 85.4 ± 9.7% (mean ± SD) eliminated within 48 hours, in female and male subjects, respectively. Similar values were achieved after a cumulative dose of 0.3 mmol/kg (0.1 + 0.2 mmol/kg, 20 minutes later), with 85.5 ± 13.2% and 92.0 ± 12.0% recovered in urine within 48 hours in female and male subjects, respectively.
In healthy subjects, the renal and total clearance rates of total gadolinium are comparable (1.27 ± 0.32 and 1.74 ± 0.12 mL/min/kg in females; and 1.40 ± 0.31 and 1.64 ± 0.35 mL/min/kg in males, respectively) indicating that the drug is primarily cleared through the kidneys. Within the studied dose range (0.1 to 0.3 mmol/kg), the kinetics of total gadolinium appear to be linear.
A single intravenous dose of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadoterate meglumine was administered to 8 patients (5 men and 3 women) with impaired renal function (mean serum creatinine of 498 ± 98 µmol/L in the 10-30 mL/min creatinine clearance group and 192 ± 62 µmol/L in the 30-60 mL/min creatinine clearance group). Renal impairment delayed the elimination of total gadolinium. Total clearance decreased as a function of the degree of renal impairment. The distribution volume was unaffected by the severity of renal impairment (Table 5). No changes in renal function test parameters were observed after gadoterate meglumine injection. The mean cumulative urinary excretion of total gadolinium was approximately 76.9 ± 4.5% in 48 hours in patients with moderate renal impairment, 68.4 ± 3.5% in 72 hours in patients with severe renal impairment and 93.3 ± 4.7% in 24 hours for subjects with normal renal function.
|Population||Elimination Half-life(hr)||Plasma Clearance(L/h/kg)||Distribution Volume(L/kg)|
|Healthy volunteers||1.6 ± 0.2||0.10 ± 0.01||0.246 ± 0.03|
|Patients with moderate renal impairment||5.1 ± 1.0||0.036 ± 0.007||0.236 ± 0.01|
|Patients with severe renal impairment||13.9 ± 1.2||0.012 ± 0.001||0.234 ± 0.01|
Gadoterate was shown to be dialyzable after an IV injection of gadoterate meglumine in 10 patients with end-stage renal failure who required hemodialysis treatment. Gd serum concentration decreased over time by 88%, 93% and 97% at 0.5 hours, 1.5 hours, and 4 hours after start of dialysis, respectively. A second and third hemodialysis session further removed Gd. After the third dialysis, Gd serum concentration decreased by 99.7%.
The pharmacokinetics of gadoterate in pediatric patients receiving gadoterate meglumine aged birth (term neonates) to 23 months, was investigated in an open label, multicenter study, using a population pharmacokinetics approach. A total of 45 subjects (22 males, 23 females) received a single intravenous dose of gadoterate meglumine 0.1 mmol/kg (0.2 mL/kg). The age ranged from less than one week to 23.8 months (mean 9.9 months) and body weight ranged from 3 to 15 kg (mean 8.1 kg). Individual level of renal maturity in the study population, as expressed by eGFR ranged between 52 and 281 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 11 patients had an eGFR below 100 mL/min/1.73 m2 (range 52 to 95 mL/min/1.73 m2).
Gadoterate concentrations obtained up to 8 hours after gadoterate meglumine administration were best fitted using a biphasic model with linear elimination from the intravascular space. The mean clearance adjusted to body weight was estimated at 0.16 ± 0.07 L/h/kg and increased with eGFR. The estimated mean elimination half-life was 1.47 ± 0.45 hours.
The body weight adjusted clearance of gadoterate after single intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadoterate meglumine in pediatric subjects aged less than 2 years was similar to that observed in healthy adults.
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