Serious and fatal reactions have been reported in patients receiving concurrent administration of ciprofloxacin and theophylline. These reactions have included cardiac arrest, seizure, status epilepticus, and respiratory failure. Instances of nausea, vomiting, tremor, irritability, or palpitation have also occurred.
Although similar serious adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving theophylline alone, the possibility that these reactions may be potentiated by ciprofloxacin cannot be eliminated. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor serum levels of theophylline and adjust dosage as appropriate [see Drug Interactions (7)] .
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) -associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including ciprofloxacin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing isolates of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile , and institute surgical evaluation as clinically indicated [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)] .
Some fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram and cases of arrhythmia. Cases of torsade de pointes have been reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin.
Avoid ciprofloxacin in patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, risk factors for QT prolongation or torsade de pointes (for example, congenital long QT syndrome, uncorrected electrolyte imbalance, such as hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia and cardiac disease, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, or bradycardia), and patients receiving Class IA antiarrhythmic agents (quinidine, procainamide), or Class III antiarrhythmic agents (amiodarone, sotalol), tricyclic antidepressants, macrolides, and antipsychotics. Elderly patients may also be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval [see Adverse Reactions (6.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.5)] .
Ciprofloxacin is indicated in pediatric patients (less than 18 years of age) only for cUTI, prevention of inhalational anthrax (post exposure), and plague
Indications and Usage (1.7,
. An increased incidence of adverse reactions compared to controls, including reactions related to joints and/or surrounding tissues, has been observed
Adverse Reactions (6.1)]
In pre-clinical studies, oral administration of ciprofloxacin caused lameness in immature dogs. Histopathological examination of the weight-bearing joints of these dogs revealed permanent lesions of the cartilage. Related quinolone-class drugs also produce erosions of cartilage of weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4) and Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)] .
Moderate to severe photosensitivity/phototoxicity reactions, the latter of which may manifest as exaggerated sunburn reactions (for example, burning, erythema, exudation, vesicles, blistering, edema) involving areas exposed to light (typically the face, “V” area of the neck, extensor surfaces of the forearms, dorsa of the hands), can be associated with the use of quinolones including ciprofloxacin after sun or UV light exposure. Therefore, avoid excessive exposure to these sources of light. Discontinue ciprofloxacin if phototoxicity occurs [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)] .
Prescribing ciprofloxacin tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Ciprofloxacin is an inhibitor the hepatic CYP1A2 enzyme pathway. Co-administration of ciprofloxacin and other drugs primarily metabolized by CYP1A2 (for example, theophylline, methylxanthines, caffeine, tizanidine, ropinirole, clozapine, olanzapine and zolpidem), results in increased plasma concentrations of the co-administered drug and could lead to clinically significant pharmacodynamic adverse reactions of the co-administered drug . Ciprofloxacin is an inhibitor of the hepatic CYP1A2 enzyme pathway. Co-administration of ciprofloxacin and other drugs primarily metabolized by CYP1A2 (for example, theophylline, methylxanthines, caffeine, tizanidine, ropinirole, clozapine, olanzapine and zolpidem), results in increased plasma concentrations of the co-administered drug and could lead to clinically significant pharmacodynamic adverse reactions of the co-administered drug [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
Ciprofloxacin has not been shown to be effective in the treatment of syphilis. Antimicrobial agents used in high dose for short periods of time to treat gonorrhea may mask or delay the symptoms of incubating syphilis. Perform a serologic test for syphilis in all patients with gonorrhea at the time of diagnosis. Perform follow-up serologic test for syphilis three months after ciprofloxacin treatment.
Crystals of ciprofloxacin have been observed rarely in the urine of human subjects but more frequently in the urine of laboratory animals, which is usually alkaline [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)] . Crystalluria related to ciprofloxacin has been reported only rarely in humans because human urine is usually acidic. Avoid alkalinity of the urine in patients receiving ciprofloxacin. Hydrate patients well to prevent the formation of highly concentrated urine [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)] .
The following serious and otherwise important adverse drug reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of labeling:
- Disabling and Potentially Irreversible Serious Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Peripheral Neuropathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Central Nervous System Effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Other Serious and Sometimes Fatal Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
- Hypersensitivity Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
- Hepatotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
- Serious Adverse Reactions with Concomitant Theophylline [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
- Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]
- Prolongation of the QT Interval [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]
- Musculoskeletal Disorders in Pediatric Patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]
- Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)]
- Development of Drug Resistant Bacteria [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
During clinical investigations with oral and parenteral ciprofloxacin, 49,038 patients received courses of the drug.
The most frequently reported adverse reactions, from clinical trials of all formulations, all dosages, all drug-therapy durations, and for all indications of ciprofloxacin therapy were nausea (2.5%), diarrhea (1.6%), liver function tests abnormal (1.3%), vomiting (1%), and rash (1%).
|System Organ Class||Adverse Reactions|
|Body as a Whole||Headache Abdominal Pain/Discomfort Pain|
|Cardiovascular||Syncope Angina Pectoris Myocardial Infarction Cardiopulmonary Arrest Tachycardia Hypotension|
|Central Nervous System||Restlessness Dizziness Insomnia Nightmares Hallucinations Paranoia Psychosis (toxic) Manic Reaction Irritability Tremor Ataxia Seizures (including Status Epilepticus) Malaise Anorexia Phobia Depersonalization Depression (potentially culminating in self-injurious behavior such as suicidal ideations/thoughts and attempted or completed suicide) Paresthesia Abnormal Gait Migraine|
|Gastrointestinal||Intestinal Perforation Gastrointestinal Bleeding Cholestatic Jaundice Hepatitis Pancreatitis|
|Musculoskeletal||Arthralgia Joint Stiffness Muscle Weakness|
|Renal/Urogenital||Interstitial Nephritis Renal Failure|
|Respiratory||Dyspnea Laryngeal Edema Hemoptysis Bronchospasm|
|Skin/Hypersensitivity||Anaphylactic Reactions including life-threatening anaphylactic shock Erythema Multiforme/Stevens-Johnson syndrome Exfoliative Dermatitis Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Pruritus Urticaria Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity reaction Flushing Fever Angioedema Erythema Nodosum Sweating|
|Special Senses||Blurred Vision Disturbed Vision (chromatopsia and photopsia) Decreased Visual Acuity Diplopia Tinnitus Hearing Loss Bad Taste|
In randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trials comparing ciprofloxacin tablets [500 mg two times daily (BID)] to cefuroxime axetil (250 mg to 500 mg BID) and to clarithromycin (500 mg BID) in patients with respiratory tract infections, ciprofloxacin demonstrated a CNS adverse reaction profile comparable to the control drugs.
Short (6 weeks) and long term (1 year) musculoskeletal and neurological safety of oral/intravenous ciprofloxacin, was compared to a cephalosporin for treatment of cUTI or pyelonephritis in pediatric patients 1 to 17 years of age (mean age of 6 ± 4 years) in an international multicenter trial. The duration of therapy was 10 to 21 days (mean duration of treatment was 11 days with a range of 1 to 88 days). A total of 335 ciprofloxacin- and 349 comparator-treated patients were enrolled.
An Independent Pediatric Safety Committee (IPSC) reviewed all cases of musculoskeletal adverse reactions including abnormal gait or abnormal joint exam (baseline or treatment-emergent). Within 6 weeks of treatment initiation, the rates of musculoskeletal adverse reactions were 9.3% (31/335) in the ciprofloxacin-treated group versus 6% (21/349) in comparator-treated patients. All musculoskeletal adverse reactions occurring by 6 weeks resolved (clinical resolution of signs and symptoms), usually within 30 days of end of treatment. Radiological evaluations were not routinely used to confirm resolution of the adverse reactions. Ciprofloxacin-treated patients were more likely to report more than one adverse reaction and on more than one occasion compared to control patients. The rate of musculoskeletal adverse reactions was consistently higher in the ciprofloxacin group compared to the control group across all age subgroups. At the end of 1 year, the rate of these adverse reactions reported at any time during that period was 13.7% (46/335) in the ciprofloxacin-treated group versus 9.5% (33/349) in the comparator-treated patients (Table 9).
|1. Included: arthralgia, abnormal gait, abnormal joint exam, joint sprains, leg pain, back pain, arthrosis, bone pain, pain, myalgia, arm pain, and decreased range of motion in a joint (knee, elbow, ankle, hip, wrist, and shoulder) 2. The study was designed to demonstrate that the arthropathy rate for the ciprofloxacin group did not exceed that of the control group by more than + 6%. At both the 6 week and 1 year evaluations, the 95% confidence interval indicated that it could not be concluded that the ciprofloxacin group had findings comparable to the control group.|
|All Patients (within 6 weeks)||31/335 (9.3%)||21/349 (6%)|
|95% Confidence Interval 2||(-0.8%, +7.2%)|
|12 months < 24 months||1/36 (2.8%)||0/41|
|2 years < 6 years||5/124 (4%)||3/118 (2.5%)|
|6 years < 12 years||18/143 (12.6%)||12/153 (7.8%)|
|12 years to 17 years||7/32 (21.9%)||6/37 (16.2%)|
|All Patients (within 1 year)||46/335 (13.7%)||33/349 (9.5%)|
|95% Confidence Interval 1||(-0.6%, + 9.1%)|
The incidence rates of neurological adverse reactions within 6 weeks of treatment initiation were 3% (9/335) in the ciprofloxacin group versus 2% (7/349) in the comparator group and included dizziness, nervousness, insomnia, and somnolence.
In this trial, the overall incidence rates of adverse reactions within 6 weeks of treatment initiation were 41% (138/335) in the ciprofloxacin group versus 31% (109/349) in the comparator group. The most frequent adverse reactions were gastrointestinal: 15% (50/335) of ciprofloxacin patients compared to 9% (31/349) of comparator patients. Serious adverse reactions were seen in 7.5% (25/335) of ciprofloxacin-treated patients compared to 5.7% (20/349) of control patients. Discontinuation of drug due to an adverse reaction was observed in 3% (10/335) of ciprofloxacin-treated patients versus 1.4% (5/349) of comparator patients. Other adverse reactions that occurred in at least 1% of ciprofloxacin patients were diarrhea 4.8%, vomiting 4.8%, abdominal pain 3.3%, dyspepsia 2.7%, nausea 2.7%, fever 2.1%, asthma 1.8% and rash 1.8%.
Short-term safety data for ciprofloxacin was also collected in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial for the treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis patients (ages 5 to 17 years). Sixty seven patients received ciprofloxacin IV 10 mg/kg/dose every 8 hours for one week followed by ciprofloxacin tablets 20 mg/kg/dose every 12 hours to complete 10 to 21 days treatment and 62 patients received the combination of ceftazidime intravenous 50 mg/kg/dose every 8 hours and tobramycin intravenous 3 mg/kg/dose every 8 hours for a total of 10 to 21 days. Periodic musculoskeletal assessments were conducted by treatment-blinded examiners. Patients were followed for an average of 23 days after completing treatment (range 0 to 93 days). Musculoskeletal adverse reactions were reported in 22% of the patients in the ciprofloxacin group and 21% in the comparison group. Decreased range of motion was reported in 12% of the subjects in the ciprofloxacin group and 16% in the comparison group. Arthralgia was reported in 10% of the patients in the ciprofloxacin group and 11% in the comparison group. Other adverse reactions were similar in nature and frequency between treatment arms. The efficacy of ciprofloxacin for the treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations in pediatric cystic fibrosis patients has not been established.
In addition to the adverse reactions reported in pediatric patients in clinical trials, it should be expected that adverse reactions reported in adults during clinical trials or postmarketing experience may also occur in pediatric patients.
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