CELECOXIB: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 4 of 6)
Limited data from 3 published reports that included a total of 12 breastfeeding women showed low levels of celecoxib in breast milk. The calculated average daily infant dose was 10 to 40 mcg/kg/day, less than 1% of the weight-based therapeutic dose for a two-year old-child. A report of two breastfed infants 17 and 22 months of age did not show any adverse events. Caution should be exercised when celecoxib is administered to a nursing woman. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for celecoxib and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the celecoxib or from the underlying maternal condition.
8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential
Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including celecoxib, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including celecoxib, in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Celecoxib is approved for relief of the signs and symptoms of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis in patients 2 years and older. Safety and efficacy have not been studied beyond six months in children. The long-term cardiovascular toxicity in children exposed to celecoxib has not been evaluated and it is unknown if long-term risks may be similar to that seen in adults exposed to celecoxib or other COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs [ (see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.12), and Clinical Studies (14.3)].
The use of celecoxib in patients 2 years to 17 years of age with pauciarticular, polyarticular course JRA or in patients with systemic onset JRA was studied in a 12-week, double-blind, active controlled, pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy study, with a 12-week open-label extension. Celecoxib has not been studied in patients under the age of 2 years, in patients with body weight less than 10 kg (22 lbs), and in patients with active systemic features. Patients with systemic onset JRA (without active systemic features) appear to be at risk for the development of abnormal coagulation laboratory tests. In some patients with systemic onset JRA, both celecoxib and naproxen were associated with mild prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) but not prothrombin time (PT). When NSAIDs including celecoxib are used in patients with systemic onset JRA, monitor patients for signs and symptoms of abnormal clotting or bleeding, due to the risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Patients with systemic onset JRA should be monitored for the development of abnormal coagulation tests [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Warnings and Precautions (5.12), Adverse Reactions (6.3), Animal Toxicology (13.2), Clinical Studies (14.3)] .
Alternative therapies for treatment of JRA should be considered in pediatric patients identified to be CYP2C9 poor metabolizers [see Poor Metabolizers of CYP2C9 substrates (8.8)].
8.5 Geriatric Use
Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.6, 5.13)].
Of the total number of patients who received celecoxib in pre-approval clinical trials, more than 3,300 were 65 to 74 years of age, while approximately 1,300 additional patients were 75 years and over. No substantial differences in effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. In clinical studies comparing renal function as measured by the GFR, BUN and creatinine, and platelet function as measured by bleeding time and platelet aggregation, the results were not different between elderly and young volunteers. However, as with other NSAIDs, including those that selectively inhibit COX-2, there have been more spontaneous post-marketing reports of fatal GI events and acute renal failure in the elderly than in younger patients [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.6)].
8.6 Hepatic Impairment
The daily recommended dose of celecoxib capsules in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B) should be reduced by 50%. The use of celecoxib in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended [ see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8.7 Renal Impairment
Celecoxib is not recommended in patients with severe renal insufficiency [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8.8 Poor Metabolizers of CYP2C9 Substrates
In patients who are known or suspected to be poor CYP2C9 metabolizers (i.e., CYP2C9*3/*3), based on genotype or previous history/experience with other CYP2C9 substrates (such as warfarin, phenytoin) administer celecoxib starting with half the lowest recommended dose. Alternative management should be considered in JRA patients identified to be CYP2C9 poor metabolizers. [ see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)].
Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma have occured, but were rare [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.6)].
No overdoses of celecoxib were reported during clinical trials. Doses up to 2400 mg/day for up to 10 days in 12 patients did not result in serious toxicity. No information is available regarding the removal of celecoxib by hemodialysis, but based on its high degree of plasma protein binding (>97%) dialysis is unlikely to be useful in overdose.
Manage patients with symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdosage. There are no specific antidotes. Consider emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 grams in adults, 1 to 2 grams per kg of body weight in pediatric patients) and/or osmotic cathartic in symptomatic patients seen within four hours of ingestion or in patients with a large overdosage (5 to 10 times the recommended dosage). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.
For additional information about overdosage treatment contact a poison control center (1-800-222-1222).
Celecoxib capsule is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, available as capsules containing 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg and 400 mg celecoxib for oral administration. The chemical name is 4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)- 3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl] benzenesulfonamide and is a diaryl-substituted pyrazole. The molecular weight is 381.38. Its molecular formula is C 17 H 14 F 3 N 3 O 2 S, and it has the following chemical structure:
Celecoxib is a white to off-white powder with a pKa of 11.1 (sulfonamide moiety). Celecoxib is hydrophobic (log P is 3.5) and is practically insoluble in aqueous media at physiological pH range.
The inactive ingredients in celecoxib capsules include: croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, povidone and sodium lauryl sulfate. The empty hard gelatin capsule shells contain gelatin and titanium dioxide. The capsules are imprinted with edible ink containing propylene glycol and shellac. In addition, 50 mg capsules are imprinted with N-butyl alcohol, FD&C yellow No.6, D&C red No.7 and titanium dioxide. 100 mg capsules are imprinted with N-butyl alcohol, strong ammonia solution, titanium dioxide and FD&C blue No.1 aluminum lake. 200 mg capsules are imprinted with iron oxide yellow, N-butyl alcohol, ammonium hydroxide and simethicone. 400 mg capsules are imprinted with N-butyl alcohol, strong ammonia solution, titanium dioxide, FD&C blue No.1 aluminum lake and FD&C yellow No.10 aluminum lake.
12. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Celecoxib has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties.
The mechanism of action of celecoxib is believed to be due to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, primarily via inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).
Celecoxib is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in vitro. Celecoxib concentrations reached during therapy have produced in vivo effects. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation. Since celecoxib is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.
In clinical trials using normal volunteers, celecoxib at single doses up to 800 mg and multiple doses of 600 mg twice daily for up to 7 days duration (higher than recommended therapeutic doses) had no effect on reduction of platelet aggregation or increase in bleeding time. Because of its lack of platelet effects, celecoxib is not a substitute for aspirin for cardiovascular prophylaxis. It is not known if there are any effects of celecoxib on platelets that may contribute to the increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic adverse events associated with the use of celecoxib.
Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis may lead to sodium and water retention through increased reabsorption in the renal medullary thick ascending loop of Henle and perhaps other segments of the distal nephron. In the collecting ducts, PGE2 appears to inhibit water reabsorption by counteracting the action of antidiuretic hormone.
Celecoxib exhibits dose-proportional increase in exposure after oral administration up to 200 mg twice daily and less than proportional increase at hgher doses. It has extensive distribution and high protein binding. It is primarily metabolized by CYP2C9 with a half-life of approximately 11 hours.
Peak plasma levels of celecoxib occur approximately 3 hours after an oral dose. Under fasting conditions, both peak plasma levels (C max ) and area under the curve (AUC) are roughly dose-proportional up to 200 mg twice daily; at higher doses there are less than proportional increases in C max and AUC [see Food Effects] . Absolute bioavailability studies have not been conducted. With multiple dosing, steady-state conditions are reached on or before Day 5. The pharmacokinetic parameters of celecoxib in a group of healthy subjects are shown in Table 4.
|Mean (%CV) PK Parameter Values|
|C max , ng/m L||T max , hr||Effective t 1/2 , hr||V ss /F, L||CL/F, L/hr|
|705 (38)||2.8 (37)||11.2 (31)||429 (34)||27.7 (28)|
When celecoxib capsules were taken with a high fat meal, peak plasma levels were delayed for about 1 to 2 hours with an increase in total absorption (AUC) of 10% to 20%. Under fasting conditions, at doses above 200 mg, there is less than a proportional increase in C max and AUC, which is thought to be due to the low solubility of the drug in aqueous media.
Coadministration of celecoxib with an aluminum- and magnesium-containing antacids resulted in a reduction in plasma celecoxib concentrations with a decrease of 37% in C max and 10% in AUC. Celecoxib, at doses up to 200 mg twice daily, can be administered without regard to timing of meals. Higher doses (400 mg twice daily) should be administered with food to improve absorption.
In healthy adult volunteers, the overall systemic exposure (AUC) of celecoxib was equivalent when celecoxib was administered as intact capsule or capsule contents sprinkled on applesauce. There were no significant alterations in C max , T max or t 1/2 after administration of capsule contents on applesauce [ see Dosage and Administration (2) ].
In healthy subjects, Celecoxib is highly protein bound (~97%) within the clinical dose range. In vitro studies indicate that celecoxib binds primarily to albumin and, to a lesser extent, α 1 -acid glycoprotein. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state (V ss /F) is approximately 400 L, suggesting extensive distribution into the tissues. Celecoxib is not preferentially bound to red blood cells.
Celecoxib metabolism is primarily mediated via CYP2C9. Three metabolites, a primary alcohol, the corresponding carboxylic acid and its glucuronide conjugate, have been identified in human plasma. These metabolites are inactive as COX-1 or COX-2 inhibitors.
Celecoxib is eliminated predominantly by hepatic metabolism with little (<3%) unchanged drug recovered in the urine and feces. Following a single oral dose of radiolabeled drug, approximately 57% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 27% was excreted into the urine. The primary metabolite in both urine and feces was the carboxylic acid metabolite (73% of dose) with low amounts of the glucuronide also appearing in the urine. It appears that the low solubility of the drug prolongs the absorption process making terminal half-life (t 1/2 ) determinations more variable. The effective half-life is approximately 11 hours under fasted conditions. The apparent plasma clearance (CL/F) is about 500 mL/min.
At steady state, elderly subjects (over 65 years old) had a 40% higher C max and a 50% higher AUC compared to the young subjects. In elderly females, celecoxib C max and AUC are higher than those for elderly males, but these increases are predominantly due to lower body weight in elderly females. Dose adjustment in the elderly is not generally necessary. However, for patients of less than 50 kg in body weight, initiate therapy at the lowest recommended dose [ see Dosage and Administration (2.7) and Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
The steady state pharmacokinetics of celecoxib administered as an investigational oral suspension was evaluated in 152 JRA patients 2 years to 17 years of age weighing ≥10 kg with pauciarticular or polyarticular course JRA and in patients with systemic onset JRA. Population pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the oral clearance (unadjusted for body weight) of celecoxib increases less than proportionally to increasing weight, with 10 kg and 25 kg patients predicted to have 40% and 24% lower clearance, respectively, compared with a 70 kg adult RA patient.
Twice-daily administration of 50 mg capsules to JRA patients weighing ≥12 to ≤25 kg and 100 mg capsules to JRA patients weighing >25 kg should achieve plasma concentrations similar to those observed in a clinical trial that demonstrated the non-inferiority of celecoxib to naproxen 7.5 mg/kg twice daily ( see Dosage and Administration (2.4). Celecoxib has not been studied in JRA patients under the age of 2 years, in patients with body weight less than 10 kg (22 lbs), or beyond 24 weeks.
Meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic studies has suggested an approximately 40% higher AUC of celecoxib in Blacks compared to Caucasians. The cause and clinical significance of this finding is unknown.
A pharmacokinetic study in subjects with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) and moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment has shown that steady-state celecoxib AUC is increased about 40% and 180%, respectively, above that seen in healthy control subjects. Therefore, the daily recommended dose of celecoxib capsules should be reduced by approximately 50% in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment. Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) have not been studied. The use of celecoxib in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended [ see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
In a cross-study comparison, celecoxib AUC was approximately 40% lower in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (GFR 35-60 mL/min) than that seen in subjects with normal renal function. No significant relationship was found between GFR and celecoxib clearance. Patients with severe renal insufficiency have not been studied. Similar to other NSAIDs, celecoxib is not recommended in patients with severe renal insufficiency [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ].
Drug Interaction Studies
In vitro studies indicate that Celecoxib is not an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2C9, 2C19 or 3A4.
In vivo studies have shown the following:
When NSAIDs were administered with aspirin, the protein binding of NSAIDs were reduced, although the clearance of free NSAID was not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known. See Table 3 for clinically significant drug interactions of NSAIDs with aspirin [ see Drug Interactions (7) ] .
In a study conducted in healthy subjects, mean steady-state lithium plasma levels increased approximately 17% in subjects receiving lithium 450 mg twice daily with celecoxib 200 mg twice daily as compared to subjects receiving lithium alone [ see Drug Interactions (7) ].
Concomitant administration of fluconazole at 200 mg once daily resulted in a two-fold increase in celecoxib plasma concentration. This increase is due to the inhibition of celecoxib metabolism via P450 2C9 by fluconazole [ see Drug Interactions (7) ].
The effects of celecoxib on the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of glyburide, ketoconazole, [ see Drug Interactions (7) ], phenytoin, and tolbutamide have been studied in vivo and clinically important interactions have not been found.
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