The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of celecoxib. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure
Cardiovascular: Vasculitis, deep venous thrombosis
General: Anaphylactoid reaction, angioedema
Liver and biliary: Liver necrosis, hepatitis, jaundice, hepatic failure
Hemic and lymphatic: Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, leucopenia
Metabolic: Hypoglycemia, hyponatremia
Nervous: Aseptic meningitis, ageusia, anosmia, fatal intracranial hemorrhage Renal: Interstitial nephritis
See Table 3 for clinically significant drug interactions with celecoxib.Table 3: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Celecoxib
|Drugs That Interfere with Hemostasis|
|Clinical Impact:|| |
|Intervention:||Monitor patients with concomitant use of celecoxib with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet drugs (e.g., aspirin), SSRIs, and SNRIs for signs of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)].|
|Clinical Impact:||Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. In two studies in healthy volunteers, and in patients with osteoarthritis and established heart disease respectively, celecoxib (200 mg to 400 mg daily) has demonstrated a lack of interference with the cardioprotective antiplatelet effect of aspirin (100 mg to 325 mg).|
|Intervention:||Concomitant use of celecoxib and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]. Celecoxib is not a substitute for low dose aspirin for cardiovascular protection.|
|ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-Blockers|
|Clinical Impact:|| |
|Clinical Impact:||Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of celecoxib with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ].|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of celecoxib with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.|
|Intervention :||During concomitant use of celecoxib and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels.|
|Clinical Impact:||NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of celecoxib and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction). Celecoxib has no effect on methotrexate pharmacokinetics.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of celecoxib and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of celecoxib and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of celecoxib and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.|
|NSAIDs and Salicylates|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of celecoxib with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].|
|Intervention:||The concomitant use of celecoxib with other NSAIDs or salicylates is not recommended.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of celecoxib and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of celecoxib and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity. NSAIDs with short elimination half-lives (e.g., diclofenac, indomethacin) should be avoided for a period of two days before, the day of, and two days following administration of pemetrexed.In the absence of data regarding potential interaction between pemetrexed and NSAIDs with longer half-lives (e.g., meloxicam, nabumetone), patients taking these NSAIDs should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration.|
|CYP2C9 Inhibitors or inducers|
|Clinical Impact:||Celecoxib metabolism is predominantly mediated via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 in the liver. Co-administration of celecoxib with drugs that are known to inhibit CYP2C9 (e.g. fluconazole) may enhance the exposure and toxicity of celecoxib whereas co-administration with CYP2C9 inducers (e.g. rifampin) may lead to compromised efficacy of celecoxib.|
|Intervention:||Evaluate each patient’s medical history when consideration is given to prescribing celecoxib. A dosage adjustment may be warranted when celecoxib is administered with CYP2C9 inhibitors or inducers. [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].|
|Clinical Impact:||In vitro studies indicate that celecoxib, although not a substrate, is an inhibitor of CYP2D6. Therefore, there is a potential for an in vivo drug interaction with drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 (e.g. atomoxetine), and celecoxib may enhance the exposure and toxicity of these drugs.|
|Intervention:||Evaluate each patient’s medical history when consideration is given to prescribing celecoxib. A dosage adjustment may be warranted when celecoxib is administered with CYP2D6 substrates. [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of corticosteroids with celecoxib may increase the risk of GI ulceration or bleeding.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients with concomitant use of celecoxib with corticosteroids for signs of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].|
Use of NSAIDs, including celecoxib, can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios and, in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. Because of these risks, limit dose and duration of celecoxib capsules use between about 20 and 30 weeks of gestation and avoid celecoxib capsules use at about 30 weeks of gestation and later in pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations, Data).
Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus
Use of NSAIDs, including celecoxib capsules, at about 30 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus.
Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment
Use of NSAIDs at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy has been associated with cases of fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment.
Data from observational studies regarding potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In animal reproduction studies, embryo-fetal deaths and an increase in diaphragmatic hernias were observed in rats administered celecoxib daily during the period of organogenesis at oral doses approximately 6 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 200 mg twice daily. In addition, structural abnormalities (e.g., septal defects, ribs fused, sternebrae fused and sternebrae misshapen) were observed in rabbits given daily oral doses of celecoxib during the period of organogenesis at approximately 2 times the MRHD (see Data). Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as celecoxib, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss. Prostaglandins also have been shown to have an important role in fetal kidney development. In published animal studies, prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors have been reported to impair kidney development when administered at clinically relevant doses.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies, is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20% respectively.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions:
Premature closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus:
Avoid use of NSAIDs in women at about 30 weeks gestation and later in pregnancy, because NSAIDs, including celecoxib, can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus (see Data).
Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment:
If an NSAID is necessary at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy, limit the use to the lowest effective dose and shortest duration possible. If celecoxib treatment extends beyond 48 hours, consider monitoring with ultrasound for oligohydramnios. If oligohydramnios occurs, discontinue celecoxib and follow up according to clinical practice (see Data).
Labor or Delivery
There are no studies on the effects of celecoxib during labor or delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDs, including celecoxib, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth.
The available data do not establish the presence or absence of developmental toxicity related to the use of celecoxib.
Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus:
Published literature reports that the use of NSAIDs at about 30 weeks of gestation and later in pregnancy may cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus.
Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment:
Published studies and postmarketing reports describe maternal NSAID use at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy associated with fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. These adverse outcomes are seen, on average, after days to weeks of treatment, although oligohydramnios has been infrequently reported as soon as 48 hours after NSAID initiation. In many cases, but not all, the decrease in amniotic fluid was transient and reversible with cessation of the drug. There have been a limited number of case reports of maternal NSAID use and neonatal renal dysfunction without oligohydramnios, some of which were irreversible. Some cases of neonatal renal dysfunction required treatment with invasive procedures, such as exchange transfusion or dialysis.
Methodological limitations of these postmarketing studies and reports include lack of a control group; limited information regarding dose, duration, and timing of drug exposure; and concomitant use of other medications. These limitations preclude establishing a reliable estimate of the risk of adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes with maternal NSAID use. Because the published safety data on neonatal outcomes involved mostly preterm infants, the generalizability of certain reported risks to the full-term infant exposed to NSAIDs through maternal use is uncertain.
Celecoxib at oral doses ≥150 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times the human exposure at 200 mg twice daily as measured by AUC0 to 24 ),caused an increased incidence of ventricular septal defects, a rare event, and fetal alterations, such as ribs fused, sternebrae fused and sternebrae misshapen when rabbits were treated throughout organogenesis. A dose-dependent increase in diaphragmatic hernias was observed when rats were given celecoxib at oral doses 30 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 times human exposure based on the AUC0 to 24 at 200 mg twice daily for RA) throughout organogenesis. In rats, exposure to celecoxib during early embryonic development resulted in pre-implantation and post-implantation losses at oral doses ≥50 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 times human exposure based on the AUC0 to 24 at 200 mg twice daily for RA).
Celecoxib produced no evidence of delayed labor or parturition at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg in rats (approximately 7-fold human exposure as measured by the AUC0 to 24 at 200 mg twice daily). The effects of celecoxib on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.
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