CEFTRIAXONE: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 4 of 6)

Teratogenic Effects

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category B:

Reproductive studies have been performed in mice and rats at doses up to 20 times the usual human dose and have no evidence of embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity or teratogenicity. In primates, no embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was demonstrated at a dose approximately 3 times the human dose.

There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nonteratogenic Effects

In rats, in the Segment I (fertility and general reproduction) and Segment III (perinatal and postnatal) studies with intravenously administered ceftriaxone, no adverse effects were noted on various reproductive parameters during gestation and lactation, including postnatal growth, functional behavior and reproductive ability of the offspring, at doses of 586 mg/kg/day or less.

Nursing Mothers

Low concentrations of ceftriaxone are excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when ceftriaxone for injection is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of ceftriaxone for injection in neonates, infants and pediatric patients have been established for the dosages described in the DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section. In vitro studies have shown that ceftriaxone, like some other cephalosporins, can displace bilirubin from serum albumin. Ceftriaxone for injection should not be administered to hyperbilirubinemic neonates, especially prematures (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Geriatric Use

Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of Ceftriaxone for injection, 32% were 60 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

The pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone were only minimally altered in geriatric patients compared to healthy adult subjects and dosage adjustments are not necessary for geriatric patients with ceftriaxone dosages up to 2 grams per day provided there is no severe renal and hepatic impairment. (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

Influence on Diagnostic Tests:

In patients treated with CEFTRIAXONE FOR INJECTION the Coombs’ test may become positive. CEFTRIAXONE, like other antibacterial drugs, may result in positive test results for galactosemia.

Nonenzymatic methods for the glucose determination in urine may give false-positive results. For this reason, urine-glucose determination during therapy with Ceftriaxone for injection should be done enzymatically.

The presence of ceftriaxone may falsely lower estimated blood glucose values obtained with some blood glucose monitoring systems. Please refer to instructions for use for each system. Alternative testing methods should be used if necessary.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Ceftriaxone for injection is generally well tolerated. In clinical trials, the following adverse reactions, which were considered to be related to ceftriaxone for injection therapy or of uncertain etiology, were observed:

Local Reactions

Pain, induration and tenderness was 1% overall. Phlebitis was reported in <1% after IV administration. The incidence of warmth, tightness or induration was 17% (3/17) after IM administration of 350 mg/mL and 5% (1/20) after IM administration of 250 mg/mL.

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions

Injection site pain (0.6%).

Hypersensitivity

Rash (1.7%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were pruritus, fever or chills.

Infections and Infestations

Genital fungal infection (0.1%).

Hematologic

Eosinophilia (6%), thrombocytosis (5.1%) and leukopenia (2.1%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were anemia, hemolytic anemia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and prolongation of the prothrombin time.

Blood and Lymphatic Disorders

Granulocytopenia (0.9%), coagulopathy (0.4%).

Gastrointestinal

Diarrhea/loose stools (2.7%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were nausea or vomiting, and dysgeusia. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment (see WARNINGS).

Hepatic

Elevations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (3.1%) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (3.3%). Less frequently reported (1%) were elevations of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin.

Renal

Elevations of the BUN (1.2%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were elevations of creatinine and the presence of casts in the urine.

Central Nervous System

Headache or dizziness were reported occasionally (<1%).

Genitourinary

Moniliasis or vaginitis were reported occasionally (<1%).

Investigations

Blood creatinine increased (0.6%).

Miscellaneous

Diaphoresis and flushing were reported occasionally (<1%).

Other rarely observed adverse reactions (<0.1%) include abdominal pain, agranulocytosis, allergic pneumonitis, anaphylaxis, basophilia, biliary lithiasis, bronchospasm, colitis, dyspepsia, epistaxis, flatulence, gallbladder sludge, glycosuria, hematuria, jaundice, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, monocytosis, nephrolithiasis, palpitations, a decrease in the prothrombin time, renal precipitations, seizures, and serum sickness.

Postmarketing Experience

In addition to the adverse reactions reported during clinical trials, the following adverse experiences have been reported during clinical practice in patients treated with ceftriaxone for injection. Data are generally insufficient to allow an estimate of incidence or to establish causation.

A small number of cases of fatal outcomes in which a crystalline material was observed in the lungs and kidneys at autopsy have been reported in neonates receiving ceftriaxone for injection and calcium-containing fluids. In some of these cases, the same intravenous infusion line was used for both cefrtiaxone for injection and calcium-containing fluids and in some a precipitate was observed in the intravenous infusion line. At least one fatality has been reported in a neonate in whom ceftriaxone for injection and calcium-containing fluids were administered at different time points via different intravenous lines; no crystalline material was observed at autopsy in this neonate. There have been no similar reports in patients other than neonates.

Gastrointestinal

Stomatitis and glossitis.

Genitourinary

Oliguria.

Dermatologic

Exanthema, allergic dermatitis, urticaria, edema; acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and isolated cases of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome or Lyell’s syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis) have been reported.

Hematological Changes:

Isolated cases of agranulocytosis (< 500/mm3) have been reported, most of them after 10 days of treatment and following total doses of 20 g or more.

Nervous System Disorders:

Convulsion

Other, Adverse Reactions:

Symptomatic precipitation of ceftriaxone calcium salt in the gallbladder, kernicterus, oliguria, and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions.

Cephalosporin Class Adverse Reactions

In addition to the adverse reactions listed above which have been observed in patients treated with ceftriaxone, the following adverse reactions and altered laboratory test results have been reported for cephalosporin class antibiotics:

Adverse Reactions

Allergic reactions, drug fever, serum sickness-like reaction, renal dysfunction, toxic nephropathy, reversible hyperactivity, hypertonia, hepatic dysfunction including cholestasis, aplastic anemia, hemorrhage, and superinfection.

Altered Laboratory Tests

Positive direct Coombs’ test, false-positive test for urinary glucose, and elevated LDH (see PRECAUTIONS).

Several cephalosporins have been implicated in triggering seizures, particularly in patients with renal impairment when the dosage was not reduced (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). If seizures associated with drug therapy occur, the drug should be discontinued. Anticonvulsant therapy can be given if clinically indicated.

OVERDOSAGE

In the case of overdosage, drug concentration would not be reduced by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. There is no specific antidote. Treatment of overdosage should be symptomatic.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Ceftriaxone for injection may be administered intravenously or intramuscularly.

Do not use diluents containing calcium, such as Ringer’s solution or Hartmann’s solution, to reconstitute ceftriaxone for injection vials or to further dilute a reconstituted vial for IV administration because a precipitate can form. Precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium can also occur when ceftriaxone for injection is mixed with calcium-containing solutions in the same IV administration line. Ceftriaxone for injection must not be administered simultaneously with calcium-containing IV solutions, including continuous calcium-containing infusions such as parenteral nutrition via a Y-site. However, in patients other than neonates, ceftriaxone for injection and calcium-containing solutions may be administered sequentially of one another if the infusion lines are thoroughly flushed between infusions with a compatible fluid (see WARNINGS).

There have been no reports of an interaction between ceftriaxone and oral calcium-containing products or interaction between intramuscular ceftriaxone and calcium-containing products (IV or oral).

Neonates

Hyperbilirubinemic neonates, especially prematures, should not be treated with Ceftriaxone for injection. Ceftriaxone for injection is contraindicated in premature neonates (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Ceftriaxone for injection is contraindicated in neonates (≤ 28 days) if they require (or are expected to require) treatment with calcium-containing IV solutions, including continuous calcium- containing infusions such as parenteral nutrition because of the risk of precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Intravenous doses should be given over 60 minutes in neonates to reduce the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy.

Pediatric Patients

For the treatment of skin and skin structure infections, the recommended total daily dose is 50 to 75 mg/kg given once a day (or in equally divided doses twice a day). The total daily dose should not exceed 2 grams.

For the treatment of acute bacterial otitis media, a single intramuscular dose of 50 mg/kg (not to exceed 1 gram) is recommended (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE).

For the treatment of serious miscellaneous infections other than meningitis, the recommended total daily dose is 50 to 75 mg/kg, given in divided doses every 12 hours. The total daily dose should not exceed 2 grams.

In the treatment of meningitis, it is recommended that the initial therapeutic dose be 100 mg/kg (not to exceed 4 grams). Thereafter, a total daily dose of 100 mg/kg/day (not to exceed 4 grams daily) is recommended. The daily dose may be administered once a day (or in equally divided doses every 12 hours). The usual duration of therapy is 7 to 14 days.

Adults

The usual adult daily dose is 1 to 2 grams given once a day (or in equally divided doses twice a day) depending on the type and severity of infection. The total daily dose should not exceed 4 grams.

If Chlamydia trachomatis is a suspected pathogen, appropriate antichlamydial coverage should be added, because ceftriaxone sodium has no activity against this organism.

For the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal infections, a single intramuscular dose of 250 mg is recommended.

For preoperative use (surgical prophylaxis), a single dose of 1 gram administered intravenously 1/2 to 2 hours before surgery is recommended.

Generally, ceftriaxone for injection therapy should be continued for at least 2 days after the signs and symptoms of infection have disappeared. The usual duration of therapy is 4 to 14 days; in complicated infections, longer therapy may be required.

When treating infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, therapy should be continued for at least 10 days.

No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with impairment of renal or hepatic function (see PRECAUTIONS).

The dosages recommended for adults require no modification in elderly patients, up to 2 gm per day, provided there is no severe renal and hepatic impairment (see PRECAUTIONS).

Directions For Use

Intramuscular Administration:

Reconstitute ceftriaxone for injection powder with the appropriate diluent (see COMPATIBILITY AND STABILITY).

Inject diluent into vial, shake vial thoroughly to form solution. Withdraw entire contents of vial into syringe to equal total labeled dose.

After reconstitution, each 1 mL of solution contains approximately 250 mg or 350 mg equivalent of ceftriaxone according to the amount of diluent indicated below. If required, more dilute solutions could be utilized.

As with all intramuscular preparations, ceftriaxone for injection should be injected well within the body of a relatively large muscle; aspiration helps to avoid unintentional injection into a blood vessel.

Amount of Diluent to be Added
Vial Dosage Size 250 mg / mL 350 mg / mL
250 mg 0.9 mL
500 mg 1.8 mL 1.0 mL
1 g 3.6 mL 2.1 mL
2 g 7.2 mL 4.2 mL

Intravenous Administration:

Ceftriaxone for injection should be administered intravenously by infusion over a period of 30 minutes, except in neonates where administration over 60 minutes is recommended to reduce the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. Concentrations between 10 mg/mL and 40 mg/mL are recommended; however, lower concentrations may be used if desired. Reconstitute vials with an appropriate IV diluent (see COMPATIBILITY AND STABILITY).

Vial Dosage Size Amount of Diluent to be Added
250 mg 2.4 mL
500 mg 4.8 mL
1 g 9.6 mL
2 g 19.2 mL

After reconstitution, each 1 mL of solution contains approximately 100 mg equivalent of ceftriaxone. Withdraw entire contents and dilute to the desired concentration with the appropriate IV diluent.

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