CARISOPRODOL- carisoprodol tablet
Jubilant Cadista Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Carisoprodol tablets USP is indicated for the relief of discomfort associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions in adults.
Carisoprodol tablets USP should only be used for short periods (up to two or three weeks) because adequate evidence of effectiveness for more prolonged use has not been established and because acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions are generally of short duration. [ see Dosage and Administration (2) ].
The recommended dose of carisoprodol is 250 mg to 350 mg three times a day and at bedtime. The recommended maximum duration of carisoprodol use is up to two or three weeks.
350 mg Tablets: White to off-white circular biconvex tablets, debossed with logo-mark “OP” and product number “35″ on one side and no mark on the other side.
Carisoprodol is contraindicated in patients with a history of acute intermittent porphyria or a hypersensitivity reaction to a carbamate such as meprobamate.
Carisoprodol has sedative properties (in the low back pain trials, 13% to 17% of patients who received carisoprodol experienced sedation compared to 6% of patients who received placebo) [ see ADVERSE REACTIONS (6.1) ] and may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks such as driving a motor vehicle or operating machinery. There have been post-marketing reports of motor vehicle accidents associated with the use of carisoprodol.
Since the sedative effects of carisoprodol and other CNS depressants (e.g., alcohol, benzodiazepines, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants) may be additive, appropriate caution should be exercised with patients who take more than one of these CNS depressants simultaneously.
Carisoprodol has been subject to abuse, dependence, and withdrawal, misuse, and criminal diversion. [ see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.1 , 9.2 , 9.3 ) ] . Abuse of carisoprodol poses a risk of overdosage which may lead to death, CNS and respiratory depression, hypotension, seizures, and other disorders [ see Overdosage (10) ] .
Post-marketing experience cases of carisoprodol abuse and dependence have been reported in patients with prolonged use and a history of drug abuse. Although most of these patients took other drugs of abuse, some patients solely abused carisoprodol. Withdrawal symptoms have been reported following abrupt cessation of carisoprodol after prolonged use. Reported withdrawal symptoms included insomnia, vomiting, abdominal cramps, headache, tremors, muscle twitching, ataxia, hallucinations, and psychosis. One of carisoprodol’s metabolites, meprobamate (a controlled substance), may also cause dependence [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] .
To reduce the risk of carisoprodol abuse, assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing. After prescribing, limit the length of treatment to three weeks for the relief of acute musculoskeletal discomfort, keep careful prescription records, monitor for signs of abuse and overdose, and educate patients and their families about abuse and on proper storage and disposal.
There have been post-marketing reports of seizures in patients who received carisoprodol. Most of these cases have occurred in the setting of multiple drug overdoses (including drugs of abuse, illegal drugs, and alcohol) [ see Overdosage (10) ].
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect rates observed in practice.
The data described below are based on 1387 patients pooled from two double blind, randomized, multicenter, placebo controlled, one-week trials in adult patients with acute, mechanical, lower back pain [ see Clinical Studies (14) ]. In these studies, patients were treated with 250 mg of carisoprodol, 350 mg of carisoprodol, or placebo three times a day and at bedtime for seven days. The mean age was about 41 years old with 54% females and 46% males and 74% Caucasian, 16% Black, 9% Asian, and 2% other.
There were no deaths and there were no serious adverse reactions in these two trials. In these two studies, 2.7%, 2%, and 5.4%, of patients treated with placebo, 250 mg of carisoprodol, and 350 mg of carisoprodol, respectively, discontinued due to adverse events; and 0.5%, 0.5%, and 1.8% of patients treated with placebo, 250 mg of carisoprodol, and 350 mg of carisoprodol, respectively, discontinued due to central nervous system adverse reactions.
Table 1 displays adverse reactions reported with frequencies greater than 2% and more frequently than placebo in patients treated with carisoprodol in the two trials described above.
|Adverse Reaction||Placebo (n=560) n (%)||Carisoprodol 250 mg (n=548) n (%)||Carisoprodol 350 mg (n=279) n (%)|
|Drowsiness||31 (6)||73 (13)||47 (17)|
|Dizziness||11 (2)||43 (8)||19 (7)|
|Headache||11 (2)||26 (5)||9 (3)|
The following events have been reported during postapproval use of carisoprodol. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Cardiovascular: Tachycardia, postural hypotension, and facial flushing [ see Overdosage (10) ].
Central Nervous System: Drowsiness, dizziness, vertigo, ataxia, tremor, agitation, irritability, headache, depressive reactions, syncope, insomnia, and seizure [ see Overdosage (10) ].
Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting, and epigastric discomfort.
Hematologic: Leukopenia, pancytopenia.
The sedative effects of carisoprodol and other CNS depressants (e.g., alcohol, benzodiazepines, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants) may be additive. Therefore, caution should be exercised with patients who take more than one of these CNS depressants simultaneously. Concomitant use of carisoprodol and meprobamate, a metabolite of carisoprodol, is not recommended [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
Carisoprodol is metabolized in the liver by CYP2C19 to form meprobamate [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Co-administration of CYP2C19 inhibitors, such as omeprazole or fluvoxamine, with carisoprodol could result in increased exposure of carisoprodol and decreased exposure of meprobamate. Co-administration of CYP2C19 inducers, such as rifampin or St. John’s Wort, with carisoprodol could result in decreased exposure of carisoprodol and increased exposure of meprobamate. Low dose aspirin also showed an induction effect on CYP2C19. The full pharmacological impact of these potential alterations of exposures in terms of either efficacy or safety of carisoprodol is unknown.
There are no data on the use of carisoprodol during human pregnancy. Animal studies indicate that carisoprodol crosses the placenta and results in adverse effects on fetal growth and postnatal survival. The primary metabolite of carisoprodol, meprobamate, is an approved anxiolytic. Retrospective, post-marketing studies do not show a consistent association between maternal use of meprobamate and an increased risk for particular congenital malformations.
Teratogenic effects: Animal studies have not adequately evaluated the teratogenic effects of carisoprodol. There was no increase in the incidence of congenital malformations noted in reproductive studies in rats, rabbits, and mice treated with meprobamate. Retrospective, post-marketing studies of meprobamate during human pregnancy were equivocal for demonstrating an increased risk of congenital malformations following first trimester exposure. Across studies that indicated an increased risk, the types of malformations were inconsistent.
Nonteratogenic effects: In animal studies, carisoprodol reduced fetal weights, postnatal weight gain, and postnatal survival at maternal doses equivalent to 1-1.5 times the human dose (based on a body surface area comparison). Rats exposed to meprobamate in-utero showed behavioral alterations that persisted into adulthood. For children exposed to meprobamate in-utero, one study found no adverse effects on mental or motor development or IQ scores. Carisoprodol should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the risk to the fetus.
There is no information about the effects of carisoprodol on the mother and the fetus during labor and delivery.
Very limited data in humans show that carisoprodol is present in breast milk and may reach concentrations two to four times the maternal plasma concentrations. In one case report, a breast-fed infant received about 4-6% of the maternal daily dose through breast milk and experienced no adverse effects. However, milk production was inadequate and the baby was supplemented with formula. In lactation studies in mice, female pup survival and pup weight at weaning were decreased. This information suggests that maternal use of carisoprodol may lead to reduced or less effective infant feeding (due to sedation) and/or decreased milk production. Caution should be exercised when carisoprodol is administered to a nursing woman.
The efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of carisoprodol in pediatric patients less than 16 years of age have not been established.
The efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of carisoprodol in patients over 65 years old have not been established.
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