Carbidopa and Levodopa: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 2 of 2)

Laboratory Tests

Abnormalities in laboratory tests may include elevations of liver function tests such as alkaline phosphatase, SGOT (AST), SGPT (ALT), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and bilirubin. Abnormalities in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and positive Coombs test have also been reported. Commonly, levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid are lower during administration of this combination product than with levodopa.

Carbidopa and levodopa may cause a false-positive reaction for urinary ketone bodies when a test tape is used for determination of ketonuria. This reaction will not be altered by boiling the urine specimen. False-negative tests may result with the use of glucose-oxidase methods of testing for glucosuria.

Cases of falsely diagnosed pheochromocytoma in patients on carbidopa levodopa therapy have been reported very rarely. Caution should be exercised when interpreting the plasma and urine levels of catecholamines and their metabolites in patients on levodopa or carbidopa levodopa therapy.

Drug Interactions

Caution should be exercised when the following drugs are administered concomitantly with carbidopa and levodopa.

Symptomatic postural hypotension occurred when carbidopa and levodopa was added to the treatment of a patient receiving antihypertensive drugs. Therefore, when therapy with carbidopa and levodopa is started, dosage adjustment of the antihypertensive drug may be required.

For patients receiving MAO inhibitors (Type A or B), see CONTRAINDICATIONS. Concomitant therapy with selegiline and carbidopa and levodopa may be associated with severe orthostatic hypotension not attributable to carbidopa levodopa alone (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

There have been rare reports of adverse reactions, including hypertension and dyskinesia, resulting from the concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants and carbidopa and levodopa.

Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists (e.g., phenothiazines, butyrophenones, risperidone) and isoniazid may reduce the therapeutic effects of levodopa. In addition, the beneficial effects of levodopa in Parkinson’s disease have been reported to be reversed by phenytoin and papaverine. Patients taking these drugs with carbidopa and levodopa should be carefully observed for loss of therapeutic response.

Use of carbidopa and levodopa with dopamine-depleting agents (e.g., reserpine and tetrabenazine) or other drugs known to deplete monoamine stores is not recommended.

Carbidopa and levodopa and iron salts or multivitamins containing iron salts should be coadministered with caution. Iron salts can form chelates with levodopa and carbidopa and consequently reduce the bioavailability of carbidopa and levodopa.

Although metoclopramide may increase the bioavailability of levodopa by increasing gastric emptying, metoclopramide may also adversely affect disease control by its dopamine receptor antagonistic properties.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

In a two-year bioassay of carbidopa and levodopa, no evidence of carcinogenicity was found in rats receiving doses of approximately two times the maximum daily human dose of carbidopa and four times the maximum daily human dose of levodopa.

In reproduction studies with carbidopa and levodopa, no effects on fertility were found in rats receiving doses of approximately two times the maximum daily human dose of carbidopa and four times the maximum daily human dose of levodopa.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

No teratogenic effects were observed in a study in mice receiving up to 20 times the maximum recommended human dose of carbidopa and levodopa. There was a decrease in the number of live pups delivered by rats receiving approximately two times the maximum recommended human dose of carbidopa and approximately five times the maximum recommended human dose of levodopa during organogenesis. Carbidopa and levodopa caused both visceral and skeletal malformations in rabbits at all doses and ratios of carbidopa/levodopa tested, which ranged from 10 times/5 times the maximum recommended human dose of carbidopa/levodopa to 20 times/10 times the maximum recommended human dose of carbidopa/levodopa.

There are no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women. It has been reported from individual cases that levodopa crosses the human placental barrier, enters the fetus, and is metabolized. Carbidopa concentrations in fetal tissue appeared to be minimal. Use of carbidopa and levodopa in women of childbearing potential requires that the anticipated benefits of the drug be weighed against possible hazards to mother and child.

Nursing Mothers

Levodopa has been detected in human milk. Caution should be exercised when carbidopa and levodopa is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Use of the drug in patients below the age of 18 is not recommended.

Geriatric Use

In the clinical efficacy trials for carbidopa and levodopa, almost half of the patients were older than 65, but few were older than 75. No overall meaningful differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals to adverse drug reactions such as hallucinations cannot be ruled out. There is no specific dosing recommendation based upon clinical pharmacology data as carbidopa and levodopa is titrated as tolerated for clinical effect.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The most common adverse reactions reported with carbidopa and levodopa have included dyskinesias, such as choreiform, dystonic, and other involuntary movements, and nausea.

The following other adverse reactions have been reported with carbidopa and levodopa:

Body As A Whole: chest pain, asthenia.

Cardiovascular: cardiac irregularities, hypotension, orthostatic effects including orthostatic hypotension, hypertension, syncope, phlebitis, palpitation.

Gastrointestinal: dark saliva, gastrointestinal bleeding, development of duodenal ulcer, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, dyspepsia, dry mouth, taste alterations.

Hematologic: agranulocytosis, hemolytic and non-hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia.

Hypersensitivity: angioedema, urticaria, pruritus, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, bullous lesions (including pemphigus-like reactions).

Musculoskeletal: back pain, shoulder pain, muscle cramps.

Nervous System/Psychiatric: psychotic episodes including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoid ideation, bradykinetic episodes (“on-off” phenomenon), confusion, agitation, dizziness, somnolence, dream abnormalities including nightmares, insomnia, paresthesia, headache, depression with or without development of suicidal tendencies, dementia, pathological gambling, increased libido including hypersexuality, impulse control symptoms. Convulsions also have occurred; however, a causal relationship with carbidopa and levodopa has not been established.

Respiratory: dyspnea, upper respiratory infection.

Skin: rash, increased sweating, alopecia, dark sweat.

Urogenital: urinary tract infection, urinary frequency, dark urine.

Laboratory Tests: decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit; abnormalities in alkaline phosphatase, SGOT (AST), SGPT (ALT), LDH, bilirubin, (BUN), Coombs test; elevated serum glucose; white blood cells, bacteria, and blood in the urine.

Other adverse reactions that have been reported with levodopa alone and with various carbidopa levodopa formulations, and may occur with this combination product are:

Body As A Whole: abdominal pain and distress, fatigue.

Cardiovascular: myocardial infarction.

Gastrointestinal: gastrointestinal pain, dysphagia, sialorrhea, flatulence, bruxism, burning sensation of the tongue, heartburn, hiccups.

Metabolic: edema, weight gain, weight loss.

Musculoskeletal: leg pain.

Nervous System/Psychiatric: ataxia, extrapyramidal disorder, falling, anxiety, gait abnormalities, nervousness, decreased mental acuity, memory impairment, disorientation, euphoria, blepharospasm (which may be taken as an early sign of excess dosage; consideration of dosage reduction may be made at this time), trismus, increased tremor, numbness, muscle twitching, activation of latent Horner’s syndrome, peripheral neuropathy.

Respiratory: pharyngeal pain, cough.

Skin: malignant melanoma (see also CONTRAINDICATIONS), flushing.

Special Senses: oculogyric crises, diplopia, blurred vision, dilated pupils.

Urogenital: urinary retention, urinary incontinence, priapism.

Miscellaneous: bizarre breathing patterns, faintness, hoarseness, malaise, hot flashes, sense of stimulation.

Laboratory Tests: decreased white blood cell count and serum potassium; increased serum creatinine and uric acid; protein and glucose in urine.

OVERDOSAGE

Management of acute overdosage with carbidopa and levodopa is the same as management of acute overdosage with levodopa. Pyridoxine is not effective in reversing the actions of this product.

General supportive measures should be employed, along with immediate gastric lavage. Intravenous fluids should be administered judiciously and an adequate airway maintained. Electrocardiographic monitoring should be instituted and the patient carefully observed for the development of arrhythmias; if required, appropriate antiarrhythmic therapy should be given. The possibility that the patient may have taken other drugs as well as carbidopa and levodopa tablets should be taken into consideration. To date, no experience has been reported with dialysis; hence, its value in overdosage is not known.

Based on studies in which high doses of levodopa and/or carbidopa were administered, a significant proportion of rats and mice given single oral doses of levodopa of approximately 1500 to 2000 mg/kg are expected to die. A significant proportion of infant rats of both sexes are expected to die at a dose of 800 mg/kg. A significant proportion of rats are expected to die after treatment with similar doses of carbidopa. The addition of carbidopa in a 1:10 ratio with levodopa increases the dose at which a significant proportion of mice are expected to die to 3360 mg/kg.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The optimum daily dosage of carbidopa and levodopa must be determined by careful titration in each patient. Carbidopa and levodopa tablets are available in a 1:4 ratio of carbidopa to levodopa (25 mg/100 mg) as well as 1:10 ratio (25 mg/250 mg and 10 mg/100 mg). Tablets of the two ratios may be given separately or combined as needed to provide the optimum dosage.

Studies show that peripheral dopa decarboxylase is saturated by carbidopa at approximately 70 to 100 mg a day. Patients receiving less than this amount of carbidopa are more likely to experience nausea and vomiting.

Usual Initial Dosage

Dosage is best initiated with one tablet of carbidopa and levodopa 25 mg/100 mg three times a day. This dosage schedule provides 75 mg of carbidopa per day. Dosage may be increased by one tablet every day or every other day, as necessary, until a dosage of eight tablets of carbidopa and levodopa 25 mg/100 mg a day is reached.

If carbidopa and levodopa 10 mg/100 mg is used, dosage may be initiated with one tablet three or four times a day. However, this will not provide an adequate amount of carbidopa for many patients. Dosage may be increased by one tablet every day or every other day until a total of eight tablets (2 tablets four times a day) is reached.

How to Transfer Patients from Levodopa

Levodopa must be discontinued at least twelve hours before starting this combination product. A daily dosage of carbidopa and levodopa should be chosen that will provide approximately 25% of the previous levodopa dosage. Patients who are taking less than 1500 mg of levodopa a day should be started on one tablet of carbidopa and levodopa 25 mg/100 mg three or four times a day. The suggested starting dosage for most patients taking more than 1500 mg of levodopa is one tablet of carbidopa and levodopa 25 mg/250 mg three or four times a day.

Maintenance

Therapy should be individualized and adjusted according to the desired therapeutic response. At least 70 to 100 mg of carbidopa per day should be provided. When a greater proportion of carbidopa is required, one 25 mg/100 mg tablet may be substituted for each 10 mg/100 mg tablet. When more levodopa is required, each 25 mg/250 mg tablet should be substituted for a 25 mg/100 mg tablet or a 10 mg/100 mg tablet. If necessary, the dosage of carbidopa levodopa 25 mg/250 mg may be increased by one-half or one tablet every day or every other day to a maximum of eight tablets a day. Experience with total daily dosages of carbidopa greater than 200 mg is limited.

Because both therapeutic and adverse responses occur more rapidly with this combination product than with levodopa alone, patients should be monitored closely during the dose adjustment period. Specifically, involuntary movements will occur more rapidly with carbidopa and levodopa than with levodopa. The occurrence of involuntary movements may require dosage reduction. Blepharospasm may be a useful early sign of excess dosage in some patients.

Addition of Other Antiparkinsonian Medications

Standard drugs for Parkinson’s disease, other than levodopa without a decarboxylase inhibitor, may be used concomitantly while carbidopa and levodopa is being administered, although dosage adjustments may be required.

Interruption of Therapy

Sporadic cases of hyperpyrexia and confusion have been associated with dose reductions and withdrawal of carbidopa and levodopa. Patients should be observed carefully if abrupt reduction or discontinuation of carbidopa and levodopa is required, especially if the patient is receiving neuroleptics. (See WARNINGS.)

If general anesthesia is required, carbidopa and levodopa may be continued as long as the patient is permitted to take fluids and medication by mouth. If therapy is interrupted temporarily, the patient should be observed for symptoms resembling NMS, and the usual daily dosage may be administered as soon as the patient is able to take oral medication.

HOW SUPPLIED

Product: 63739-108

NDC: 63739-108-10 10 TABLET in a BLISTER PACK / 10 in a BOX

Manufactured by:
Mayne Pharma International
Salisbury South, SA 5106, Australia

Distributed by:
Mayne Pharma
Greenville, NC 27834

61739

Revised — August 2018

CARBIDOPA AND LEVODOPA TABLET

Label Image
(click image for full-size original)
CARBIDOPA AND LEVODOPA
carbidopa and levodopa tablet
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:63739-108(NDC:51862-856)
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
CARBIDOPA (CARBIDOPA ANHYDROUS) CARBIDOPA ANHYDROUS 25 mg
LEVODOPA (LEVODOPA) LEVODOPA 100 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
Magnesium Stearate
Microcrystalline Cellulose
Starch, Corn
D&C Yellow No. 10
FD&C Yellow No. 6
Product Characteristics
Color YELLOW (mottled-yellow) Score 2 pieces
Shape ROUND Size 9mm
Flavor Imprint Code m;721
Contains
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description Multilevel Packaging
1 NDC:63739-108-10 10 BLISTER PACK in 1 BOX contains a BLISTER PACK
1 10 TABLET in 1 BLISTER PACK This package is contained within the BOX (63739-108-10)
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
ANDA ANDA073589 07/16/2018
Labeler — McKesson Corporation dba SKY Packaging (140529962)
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
McKesson Corporation dba RX Pak 025183281 REPACK (63739-108)

Revised: 10/2019 McKesson Corporation dba SKY Packaging

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