Capecitabine tablets USP are fluoropyrimidine carbamate with antineoplastic activity. It is an orally administered systemic prodrug of 5’-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5’-DFUR) which is converted to 5- fluorouracil.
The chemical name for Capecitabine, USP is 5’-deoxy-5-fluoro-N-[(pentyloxy) carbonyl]-cytidine and has a molecular weight of 359.35. Capecitabine has the following structural formula:
Capecitabine, USP is a white to off-white crystalline powder with an aqueous solubility of 26 mg/mL at 20ºC.
Capecitabine tablets USP are supplied as capsule shaped, biconvex film coated tablets for oral administraton. Each light pink-colored tablet contains 150 mg capecitabine and each dark pink-colored tablet contains 500 mg capecitabine. The inactive ingredients in Capecitabine tablets USP include: anhydrous lactose, croscarmellose sodium, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate and purified water. The light or dark pink film coating contains hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, talc, titanium dioxide, yellow iron oxide, and red iron oxide.
Enzymes convert capecitabine to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in vivo. Both normal and tumor cells metabolize 5-FU to 5-fluoro-2’-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP). These metabolites cause cell injury by two different mechanisms. First, FdUMP and the folate cofactor, N5-10 -methylenetetrahydrofolate, bind to thymidylate synthase (TS) to form a covalently bound ternary complex. This binding inhibits the formation of thymidylate from 2’-deoxyuridylate. Thymidylate is the necessary precursor of thymidine triphosphate, which is essential for the synthesis of DNA, so that a deficiency of this compound can inhibit cell division. Second, nuclear transcriptional enzymes can mistakenly incorporate FUTP in place of uridine triphosphate (UTP) during the synthesis of RNA. This metabolic error can interfere with RNA processing and protein synthesis.
Following oral administration of 1255 mg/m2 BID to cancer patients, capecitabine reached peak blood levels in about 1.5 hours (Tmax ) with peak 5-FU levels occurring slightly later, at 2 hours. Food reduced both the rate and extent of absorption of capecitabine with mean Cmax and AUC0-∞ decreased by 60% and 35%, respectively. The Cmax and AUC0-∞ of 5-FU were also reduced by food by 43% and 21%, respectively. Food delayed Tmax of both parent and 5-FU by 1.5 hours [see Warnings and Precautions (5), Dosage and Administration (2), and Drug-Food Interaction (7.2)].
The pharmacokinetics of capecitabine and its metabolites have been evaluated in about 200 cancer patients over a dosage range of 500 to 3500 mg/m2 /day. Over this range, the pharmacokinetics of capecitabine and its metabolite, 5’-DFCR were dose proportional and did not change over time. The increases in the AUCs of 5’-DFUR and 5-FU, however, were greater than proportional to the increase in dose and the AUC of 5-FU was 34% higher on day 14 than on day 1. The interpatient variability in the Cmax and AUC of 5-FU was greater than 85%.
Plasma protein binding of capecitabine and its metabolites is less than 60% and is not concentration- dependent. Capecitabine was primarily bound to human albumin (approximately 35%). Capecitabine has a low potential for pharmacokinetic interactions related to plasma protein binding.
Bioactivation and Metabolism
Capecitabine is extensively metabolized enzymatically to 5-FU. In the liver, a 60 kDa carboxylesterase hydrolyzes much of the compound to 5’-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (5’-DFCR). Cytidine deaminase, an enzyme found in most tissues, including tumors, subsequently converts 5’DFCR to 5’-DFUR. The enzyme, thymidine phosphorylase (dThdPase), then hydrolyzes 5’-DFUR to the active drug 5-FU. Many tissues throughout the body express thymidine phosphorylase. Some human carcinomas express this enzyme in higher concentrations than surrounding normal tissues. Following oral administration of capecitabine 7 days before surgery in patients with colorectal cancer, the median ratio of 5-FU concentration in colorectal tumors to adjacent tissues was 2.9 (range from 0.9 to 8.0). These ratios have not been evaluated in breast cancer patients or compared to 5-FU infusion.
Metabolic Pathway of capecitabine to 5-FU3
The enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase hydrogenates 5-FU, the product of capecitabine metabolism, to the much less toxic 5-fluoro-5, 6-dihydro-fluorouracil (FUH2 ). Dihydropyrimidinase cleaves the pyrimidine ring to yield 5-fluoro-ureido-propionic acid (FUPA). Finally, β-ureido- propionase cleaves FUPA to α-fluoro-β-alanine (FBAL) which is cleared in the urine.
In vitro enzymatic studies with human liver microsomes indicated that capecitabine and its metabolites (5’-DFUR, 5’-DFCR, 5-FU, and FBAL) did not inhibit the metabolism of test substrates by cytochrome P450 isoenzymes 1A2, 2A6, 3A4, 2C19, 2D6, and 2E1.
Capecitabine and its metabolites are predominantly excreted in urine; 95.5% of administered capecitabine dose is recovered in urine. Fecal excretion is minimal (2.6%). The major metabolite excreted in urine is FBAL which represents 57% of the administered dose. About 3% of the administered dose is excreted in urine as unchanged drug. The elimination half-life of both parent capecitabine and 5-FU was about 0.75 hour.
Effect of Age, Gender, and Race on the Pharmacokinetics of Capecitabine
A population analysis of pooled data from the two large controlled studies in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (n=505) who were administered capecitabine at 1250 mg/m2 twice a day indicated that gender (202 females and 303 males) and race (455 white/Caucasian patients, 22 black patients, and 28 patients of other race) have no influence on the pharmacokinetics of 5’-DFUR, 5-FU and FBAL. Age has no significant influence on the pharmacokinetics of 5’-DFUR and 5-FU over the range of 27 to 86 years. A 20% increase in age results in a 15% increase in AUC of FBAL [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) and Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
Following oral administration of 825 mg/m2 capecitabine twice daily for 14 days, Japanese patients (n=18) had about 36% lower Cmax and 24% lower AUC for capecitabine than the Caucasian patients (n=22). Japanese patients had also about 25% lower Cmax and 34% lower AUC for FBAL than the Caucasian patients. The clinical significance of these differences is unknown. No significant differences occurred in the exposure to other metabolites (5’-DFCR, 5’-DFUR, and 5-FU).
Effect of Hepatic Insufficiency
Capecitabine has been evaluated in 13 patients with mild to moderate hepatic dysfunction due to liver metastases defined by a composite score including bilirubin, AST/ALT and alkaline phosphatase following a single 1255 mg/m2 dose of capecitabine. Both AUC0-∞ and Cmax of capecitabine increased by 60% in patients with hepatic dysfunction compared to patients with normal hepatic function (n=14). The AUC0-∞ and Cmax of 5-FU were not affected. In patients with mild to moderate hepatic dysfunction due to liver metastases, caution should be exercised when capecitabine is administered. The effect of severe hepatic dysfunction on capecitabine is not known [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) and Use in Special Populations (8.6)].
Effect of Renal Insufficiency
Following oral administration of 1250 mg/m2 capecitabine twice a day to cancer patients with varying degrees of renal impairment, patients with moderate (creatinine clearance = 30 to 50 mL/min) and severe (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min) renal impairment showed 85% and 258% higher systemic exposure to FBAL on day 1 compared to normal renal function patients (creatinine clearance >80 mL/min). Systemic exposure to 5’-DFUR was 42% and 71% greater in moderately and severely renal impaired patients, respectively, than in normal patients. Systemic exposure to capecitabine was about 25% greater in both moderately and severely renal impaired patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Contraindications (4.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.5), and Use in Special Populations (8.7)].
Effect of Capecitabine on the Pharmacokinetics of Warfarin
In four patients with cancer, chronic administration of capecitabine (1250 mg/m2 bid) with a single 20 mg dose of warfarin increased the mean AUC of S-warfarin by 57% and decreased its clearance by 37%. Baseline corrected AUC of INR in these 4 patients increased by 2.8-fold, and the maximum observed mean INR value was increased by 91% [see Boxed Warning and Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Effect of Antacids on the Pharmacokinetics of Capecitabine
When Maalox® (20 mL), an aluminum hydroxide- and magnesium hydroxide-containing antacid, was administered immediately after capecitabine (1250 mg/m2 , n=12 cancer patients), AUC and Cmax increased by 16% and 35%, respectively, for capecitabine and by 18% and 22%, respectively, for 5’-DFCR. No effect was observed on the other three major metabolites (5’-DFUR, 5-FU, FBAL) of capecitabine.
Effect of Allopurinol on Capecitabine
Published literature reported that concomitant use with allopurinol may decrease conversion of capecitabine to the active metabolites, FdUMP and FUTP; however, the clinical significance was not fully characterized.
Effect of Capecitabine on the Pharmacokinetics of Docetaxel and Vice Versa
A Phase 1 study evaluated the effect of capecitabine on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel (Taxotere®) and the effect of docetaxel on the pharmacokinetics of capecitabine was conducted in 26 patients with solid tumors. Capecitabine was found to have no effect on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel (Cmax and AUC) and docetaxel has no effect on the pharmacokinetics of capecitabine and the 5-FU precursor 5’-DFUR.
Adequate studies investigating the carcinogenic potential of capecitabine have not been conducted. Capecitabine was not mutagenic in vitro to bacteria (Ames test) or mammalian cells (Chinese hamster V79/HPRT gene mutation assay). Capecitabine was clastogenic in vitro to human peripheral blood lymphocytes but not clastogenic in vivo to mouse bone marrow (micronucleus test). Fluorouracil causes mutations in bacteria and yeast. Fluorouracil also causes chromosomal abnormalities in the mouse micronucleus test in vivo.
In studies of fertility and general reproductive performance in female mice, oral capecitabine doses of 760 mg/kg/day (about 2300 mg/m2 /day) disturbed estrus and consequently caused a decrease in fertility. In mice that became pregnant, no fetuses survived this dose. The disturbance in estrus was reversible. In males, this dose caused degenerative changes in the testes, including decreases in the number of spermatocytes and spermatids. In separate pharmacokinetic studies, this dose in mice produced 5’-DFUR AUC values about 0.7 times the corresponding values in patients administered the recommended daily dose.
A multicenter randomized, controlled phase 3 clinical trial in patients with Dukes’ C colon cancer (X-ACT) provided data concerning the use of capecitabine for the adjuvant treatment of patients with colon cancer. The primary objective of the study was to compare disease-free survival (DFS) in patients receiving capecitabine to those receiving IV 5-FU/LV alone. In this trial, 1987 patients were randomized either to treatment with capecitabine 1250 mg/m2 orally twice daily for 2 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period, given as 3-week cycles for a total of 8 cycles (24 weeks) or IV bolus 5-FU 425 mg/m2 and 20 mg/m2 IV leucovorin on days 1 to 5, given as 4-week cycles for a total of 6 cycles (24 weeks). Patients in the study were required to be between 18 and 75 years of age with histologically-confirmed Dukes’ stage C colon cancer with at least one positive lymph node and to have undergone (within 8 weeks prior to randomization) complete resection of the primary tumor without macroscopic or microscopic evidence of remaining tumor. Patients were also required to have no prior cytotoxic chemotherapy or immunotherapy (except steroids), and have an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1 (KPS ≥ 70%), ANC ≥ 1.5×109 /L, platelets ≥ 100×109 /L, serum creatinine ≤ 1.5 ULN, total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 ULN, AST/ALT ≤ 2.5 ULN and CEA within normal limits at time of randomization.
The baseline demographics for capecitabine and 5-FU/LV patients are shown in Table 10. The baseline characteristics were well-balanced between arms.
|Capecitabine (n=1004)||5-FU/LV (n=983)|
|Age (median, years) Range||62(25-80)||63(22-82)|
|Gender Male (n, %) Female (n, %)||542 (54)461 (46)||532 (54)451 (46)|
|ECOG PS 0 (n, %) 1 (n, %)||849 (85)152 (15)||830 (85)147 (15)|
|Staging – Primary Tumor PT1 (n, %) PT2 (n, %) PT3 (n, %) PT4 (n, %) Other (n, %)||12 (1)90 (9)763 (76)138 (14)1 (0.1)||6 (0.6)92 (9)746 (76)139 (14)0 (0)|
|Staging – Lymph Node pN1 (n, %) pN2 (n, %) Other (n, %)||695 (69)305 (30)4 (0.4)||694 (71)288 (29)1 (0.1)|
All patients with normal renal function or mild renal impairment began treatment at the full starting dose of 1250 mg/m2 orally twice daily. The starting dose was reduced in patients with moderate renal impairment (calculated creatinine clearance 30 to 50 mL/min) at baseline [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. Subsequently, for all patients, doses were adjusted when needed according to toxicity. Dose management for capecitabine included dose reductions, cycle delays and treatment interruptions (see Table 11).
|Capecitabine N = 995||5-FU/LV N = 974|
|Median relative dose intensity (%)||93||92|
|Patients completing full course of treatment (%)||83||87|
|Patients with treatment interruption (%)||15||5|
|Patients with cycle delay (%)||46||29|
|Patients with dose reduction (%)||42||44|
|Patients with treatment interruption, cycle delay, or dose reduction (%)||57||52|
The median follow-up at the time of the analysis was 83 months (6.9 years). The hazard ratio for DFS for capecitabine compared to 5-FU/LV was 0.88 (95% C.I. 0.77 – 1.01) (see Table 12 and Figure 1). Because the upper 2-sided 95% confidence limit of hazard ratio was less than 1.20, capecitabine was non-inferior to 5-FU/LV. The choice of the non-inferiority margin of 1.20 corresponds to the retention of approximately 75% of the 5-FU/LV effect on DFS. The hazard ratio for capecitabine compared to 5-FU/LV with respect to overall survival was 0.86 (95% C.I. 0.74 – 1.01). The 5-year overall survival rates were 71.4% for capecitabine and 68.4% for 5-FU/LV (see Figure 2).
a Approximately 93.4% had 5-year DFS information
b Based on Kaplan-Meier estimates
c Test of superiority of capecitabine vs 5-FU/LV (Wald chi-square test)
|All Randomized Population||Capecitabine (n=1004)||5-FU/LV (n=983)|
|Median follow-up (months)||83||83|
|5-year Disease-free Survival Rates (%)b||59.1||54.6|
|Hazard Ratio (capecitabine /5-FU/LV) (95% C.I. for Hazard Ratio) p-valuec||0.88 (0.77 -1.01) p = 0.068|
Figure 1 Kaplan-Meier Estimates of Disease-Free Survival (All Randomized Population)a
a Capecitabine has been demonstrated to be non-inferior to 5-FU/LV.
Figure 2 Kaplan-Meier Estimates of Overall Survival (All Randomized Population)
DrugInserts.com provides trustworthy package insert and label information about marketed drugs as submitted by manufacturers to the US Food and Drug Administration. Package information is not reviewed or updated separately by DrugInserts.com. Every individual package label entry contains a unique identifier which can be used to secure further details directly from the US National Institutes of Health and/or the FDA.