Clinically relevant adverse events reported in <5% of patients treated with capecitabine either as monotherapy or in combination with docetaxel that were considered at least remotely related to treatment are shown below; occurrences of each grade 3 and 4 adverse event are provided in parentheses.
|Monotherapy (Metastatic Colorectal Cancer, Adjuvant Colorectal Cancer, Metastatic Breast Cancer)|
|Gastrointestinal:||abdominal distension, dysphagia, proctalgia, ascites (0.1%), gastric ulcer (0.1%), ileus (0.3%), toxic dilation of intestine, gastroenteritis (0.1%)|
|Skin & Subcutan.:||nail disorder (0.1%), sweating increased (0.1%), photosensitivity reaction (0.1%), skin ulceration, pruritus, radiation recall syndrome (0.2%)|
|General:||chest pain (0.2%), influenza-like illness, hot flushes, pain (0.1%), hoarseness, irritability, difficulty in walking, thirst, chest mass, collapse, fibrosis (0.1%), hemorrhage, edema, sedation|
|Neurological:||insomnia, ataxia (0.5%), tremor, dysphasia, encephalopathy (0.1%), abnormal coordination, dysarthria, loss of consciousness (0.2%), impaired balance|
|Metabolism:||increased weight, cachexia (0.4%), hypertriglyceridemia (0.1%), hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia|
|Respiratory:||cough (0.1%), epistaxis (0.1%), asthma (0.2%), hemoptysis, respiratory distress (0.1%), dyspnea|
|Cardiac:||tachycardia (0.1%), bradycardia, atrial fibrillation, ventricular extrasystoles, extrasystoles, myocarditis (0.1%), pericardial effusion|
|Infections:||laryngitis (1.0%), bronchitis (0.2%), pneumonia (0.2%), bronchopneumonia (0.2%), keratoconjunctivitis, sepsis (0.3%), fungal infections (including candidiasis) (0.2%)|
|Musculoskeletal:||myalgia, bone pain (0.1%), arthritis (0.1%), muscle weakness|
|Blood & Lymphatic:||leukopenia (0.2%), coagulation disorder (0.1%), bone marrow depression (0.1%), idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (1.0%), pancytopenia (0.1%)|
|Vascular:||hypotension (0.2%), hypertension (0.1%), lymphoedema (0.1%), pulmonary embolism (0.2%), cerebrovascular accident (0.1%)|
|Psychiatric:||depression, confusion (0.1%)|
|Renal:||renal impairment (0.6%)|
|Hepatobiliary:||hepatic fibrosis (0.1%), hepatitis (0.1%), cholestatic hepatitis (0.1%), abnormal liver function tests|
|Immune System:||drug hypersensitivity (0.1%)|
|Capecitabine In Combination With Docetaxel (Metastatic Breast Cancer)|
|Gastrointestinal:||ileus (0.4%), necrotizing enterocolitis (0.4%), esophageal ulcer (0.4%), hemorrhagic diarrhea (0.8%)|
|Neurological:||ataxia (0.4%), syncope (1.2%), taste loss (0.8%), polyneuropathy (0.4%), migraine (0.4%)|
|Cardiac:||supraventricular tachycardia (0.4%)|
|Infection:||neutropenic sepsis (2.4%), sepsis (0.4%), bronchopneumonia (0.4%)|
|Blood & Lymphatic:||agranulocytosis (0.4%), prothrombin decreased (0.4%)|
|Vascular:||hypotension (1.2%), venous phlebitis and thrombophlebitis (0.4%), postural hypotension (0.8%)|
|Renal:||renal failure (0.4%)|
|Hepatobiliary:||jaundice (0.4%), abnormal liver function tests (0.4%), hepatic failure (0.4%), hepatic coma (0.4%), hepatotoxicity (0.4%)|
|Immune System:||hypersensitivity (1.2%)|
The following adverse reactions have been observed in the postmarketing setting: hepatic failure, lacrimal duct stenosis, acute renal failure secondary to dehydration including fatal outcome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] , cutaneous lupus erythematosus, corneal disorders including keratitis, toxic leukoencephalopathy, severe skin reactions such as Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] , persistent or severe hand-and-foot syndrome can eventually lead to loss of fingerprints [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
In instances of exposure to crushed capecitabine tablets, the following adverse reactions have been reported: eye irritation and swelling, skin rash, diarrhea, paresthesia, headache, gastric irritation, vomiting, and nausea.
Altered coagulation parameters and/or bleeding have been reported in patients taking capecitabine concomitantly with coumarin-derivative anticoagulants such as warfarin and phenprocoumon [see Boxed Warning]. These events occurred within several days and up to several months after initiating capecitabine therapy and, in a few cases, within 1 month after stopping capecitabine. These events occurred in patients with and without liver metastases. In a drug interaction study with single dose warfarin administration, there was a significant increase in the mean AUC of S-warfarin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The maximum observed INR value increased by 91%. This interaction is probably due to an inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C9 by capecitabine and/or its metabolites.
The level of phenytoin should be carefully monitored in patients taking capecitabine and phenytoin dose may need to be reduced [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)]. Postmarketing reports indicate that some patients receiving capecitabine and phenytoin had toxicity associated with elevated phenytoin levels. Formal drug-drug interaction studies with phenytoin have not been conducted, but the mechanism of interaction is presumed to be inhibition of the CYP2C9 isoenzyme by capecitabine and/or its metabolites.
The concentration of 5-fluorouracil is increased and its toxicity may be enhanced by leucovorin. Deaths from severe enterocolitis, diarrhea, and dehydration have been reported in elderly patients receiving weekly leucovorin and fluorouracil.
Other than warfarin, no formal drug-drug interaction studies between capecitabine and other CYP2C9 substrates have been conducted. Care should be exercised when capecitabine is coadministered with CYP2C9 substrates.
Concomitant use with allopurinol may decrease concentration of capecitabine’s active metabolites [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] , which may decrease capecitabine tablets efficacy. Avoid the use of allopurinol during treatment with capecitabine tablets.
Food was shown to reduce both the rate and extent of absorption of capecitabine [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. In all clinical trials, patients were instructed to administer capecitabine within 30 minutes after a meal. It is recommended that capecitabine be administered with food [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
Based on findings in animal reproduction studies and its mechanism of action, Capecitabine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. Limited available human data are not sufficient to inform the drug-associated risk during pregnancy. In animal reproduction studies, administration of capecitabine to pregnant animals during the period of organogenesis caused embryo lethality and teratogenicity in mice and embryo lethality in monkeys at 0.2 and 0.6 times the exposure (AUC) in patients receiving the recommended dose respectively [see Data]. Apprise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Oral administration of capecitabine to pregnant mice during the period of organogenesis at a dose of 198 mg/kg/day caused malformations and embryo lethality. In separate pharmacokinetic studies, this dose in mice produced 5’-DFUR AUC values that were approximately 0.2 times the AUC values in patients administered the recommended daily dose. Malformations in mice included cleft palate, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, oligodactyly, polydactyly, syndactyly, kinky tail and dilation of cerebral ventricles. Oral administration of capecitabine to pregnant monkeys during the period of organogenesis at a dose of 90 mg/kg/day, caused fetal lethality. This dose produced 5’-DFUR AUC values that were approximately 0.6 times the AUC values in patients administered the recommended daily dose.
There is no information regarding the presence of capecitabine in human milk, or on its effects on milk production or the breast-fed infant. Capecitabine metabolites were present in the milk of lactating mice [see Data]. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from capecitabine exposure in breast-fed infants, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with capecitabine and for 2 weeks after the final dose.
Lactating mice given a single oral dose of capecitabine excreted significant amounts of capecitabine metabolites into the milk.
Pregnancy testing is recommended for females of reproductive potential prior to initiating capecitabine.
Capecitabine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 6 months following the final dose of capecitabine.
Based on genetic toxicity findings, advise male patients with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 3 months following the last dose of capecitabine [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
Based on animal studies, capecitabine may impair fertility in females and males of reproductive potential [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
The safety and effectiveness of capecitabine in pediatric patients have not been established. No clinical benefit was demonstrated in two single arm trials in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed brainstem gliomas and high grade gliomas. In both trials, pediatric patients received an investigational pediatric formulation of capecitabine concomitantly with and following completion of radiation therapy (total dose of 5580 cGy in 180 cGy fractions). The relative bioavailability of the investigational formulation to capecitabine was similar.
The first trial was conducted in 22 pediatric patients (median age 8 years, range 5-17 years) with newly diagnosed non-disseminated intrinsic diffuse brainstem gliomas and high grade gliomas. In the dose-finding portion of the trial, patients received capecitabine with concomitant radiation therapy at doses ranging from 500 mg/m2 to 850 mg/m2 every 12 hours for up to 9 weeks. After a 2 week break, patients received 1250 mg/m2 capecitabine every 12 hours on Days 1-14 of a 21day cycle for up to 3 cycles. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of capecitabine administered concomitantly with radiation therapy was 650 mg/m2 every 12 hours. The major dose limiting toxicities were palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation.
The second trial was conducted in 34 additional pediatric patients with newly diagnosed non-disseminated intrinsic diffuse brainstem gliomas (median age 7 years, range 3-16 years) and 10 pediatric patients who received the MTD of capecitabine in the dose-finding trial and met the eligibility criteria for this trial. All patients received 650 mg/m2 capecitabine every 12 hours with concomitant radiation therapy for up to 9 weeks. After a 2 week break, patients received 1250 mg/m2 capecitabine every 12 hours on Days 1-14 of a 21-day cycle for up to 3 cycles.
There was no improvement in one-year progression-free survival rate and one-year overall survival rate in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed intrinsic brainstem gliomas who received capecitabine relative to a similar population of pediatric patients who participated in other clinical trials.
The adverse reaction profile of capecitabine was consistent with the known adverse reaction profile in adults, with the exception of laboratory abnormalities which occurred more commonly in pediatric patients. The most frequently reported laboratory abnormalities (per-patient incidence ≥40%) were increased ALT (75%), lymphocytopenia (73%), leukopenia (73%), hypokalemia (68%), thrombocytopenia (57%), hypoalbuminemia (55%), neutropenia (50%), low hematocrit (50%), hypocalcemia (48%), hypophosphatemia (45%) and hyponatremia (45%).
Physicians should pay particular attention to monitoring the adverse effects of capecitabine in the elderly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].
Exercise caution when patients with mild to moderate hepatic dysfunction due to liver metastases are treated with capecitabine. The effect of severe hepatic dysfunction on capecitabine is not known [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Patients with moderate (creatinine clearance = 30 to 50 mL/min) and severe (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min) renal impairment showed higher exposure for capecitabine, 5-FDUR, and FBAL than in those with normal renal function [see Contraindications (4.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Dosage and Administration (2.4), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The manifestations of acute overdose would include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, gastrointestinal irritation and bleeding, and bone marrow depression. Medical management of overdose should include customary supportive medical interventions aimed at correcting the presenting clinical manifestations. Although no clinical experience using dialysis as a treatment for capecitabine overdose has been reported, dialysis may be of benefit in reducing circulating concentrations of 5’-DFUR, a low–molecular-weight metabolite of the parent compound.
Single doses of capecitabine were not lethal to mice, rats, and monkeys at doses up to 2000 mg/kg (2.4, 4.8, and 9.6 times the recommended human daily dose on a mg/m2 basis).
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