Capecitabine tablets are contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance below 30 mL/min [Cockroft and Gault]) [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Capecitabine tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to capecitabine or to any of its components. Capecitabine tablets are contraindicated in patients who have a known hypersensitivity to 5-fluorouracil.
Patients receiving concomitant capecitabine and oral coumarin-derivative anticoagulant therapy should have their anticoagulant response (INR or prothrombin time) monitored closely with great frequency and the anticoagulant dose should be adjusted accordingly [see Boxed Warning and Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Capecitabine can induce diarrhea, sometimes severe. Patients with severe diarrhea should be carefully monitored and given fluid and electrolyte replacement if they become dehydrated. In 875 patients with either metastatic breast or colorectal cancer who received capecitabine monotherapy, the median time to first occurrence of grade 2 to 4 diarrhea was 34 days (range from 1 to 369 days). The median duration of grade 3 to 4 diarrhea was 5 days. National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) grade 2 diarrhea is defined as an increase of 4 to 6 stools/day or nocturnal stools, grade 3 diarrhea as an increase of 7 to 9 stools/day or incontinence and malabsorption, and grade 4 diarrhea as an increase of ≥10 stools/day or grossly bloody diarrhea or the need for parenteral support. If grade 2, 3 or 4 diarrhea occurs, administration of capecitabine should be immediately interrupted until the diarrhea resolves or decreases in intensity to grade 1. [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)]. Standard antidiarrheal treatments (eg, loperamide) are recommended.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (typhlitis) has been reported.
The cardiotoxicity observed with capecitabine includes myocardial infarction/ischemia, angina, dysrhythmias, cardiac arrest, cardiac failure, sudden death, electrocardiographic changes, and cardiomyopathy. These adverse reactions may be more common in patients with a prior history of coronary artery disease.
Based on postmarketing reports, patients with certain homozygous or certain compound heterozygous mutations in the DPD gene that result in complete or near complete absence of DPD activity are at increased risk for acute early-onset of toxicity and severe, life-threatening, or fatal adverse reactions caused by capecitabine (e.g., mucositis, diarrhea, neutropenia, and neurotoxicity). Patients with partial DPD activity may also have increased risk of severe, life-threatening, or fatal adverse reactions caused by capecitabine.
Withhold or permanently discontinue capecitabine based on clinical assessment of the onset, duration and severity of the observed toxicities in patients with evidence of acute early-onset or unusually severe toxicity, which may indicate near complete or total absence of DPD activity. No capecitabine dose has been proven safe for patients with complete absence of DPD activity. There is insufficient data to recommend a specific dose in patients with partial DPD activity as measured by any specific test.
Dehydration has been observed and may cause acute renal failure which can be fatal. Patients with pre-existing compromised renal function or who are receiving concomitant Capecitabine with known nephrotoxic agents are at higher risk. Patients with anorexia, asthenia, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea may rapidly become dehydrated. Monitor patients when Capecitabine is administered to prevent and correct dehydration at the onset. If grade 2 (or higher) dehydration occurs, Capecitabine treatment should be immediately interrupted and the dehydration corrected. Treatment should not be restarted until the patient is rehydrated and any precipitating causes have been corrected or controlled. Dose modifications should be applied for the precipitating adverse event as necessary [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) ].
Patients with moderate renal impairment at baseline require dose reduction [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) ]. Patients with mild and moderate renal impairment at baseline should be carefully monitored for adverse reactions. Prompt interruption of therapy with subsequent dose adjustments is recommended if a patient develops a grade 2 to 4 adverse event as outlined in Table 2 [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Use in Specific Populations (8.7), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Based on findings from animal reproduction studies and its mechanism of action, capecitabine tablets may cause fetal harm when given to a pregnant woman [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. Limited available data are not sufficient to inform use of capecitabine in pregnant women. In animal reproduction studies, administration of capecitabine to pregnant animals during the period of organogenesis caused embryolethality and teratogenicity in mice and embryolethality in monkeys at 0.2 and 0.6 times the exposure (AUC) in patients receiving the recommended dose respectively [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Apprise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 6 months following the last dose of capecitabine [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].
Severe mucocutaneous reactions, some with fatal outcome, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) can occur in patients treated with Capecitabine [see Adverse Reactions (6.4) ]. Capecitabine should be permanently discontinued in patients who experience a severe mucocutaneous reaction possibly attributable to Capecitabine treatment.
Hand-and-foot syndrome (palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia or chemotherapy-induced acral erythema) is a cutaneous toxicity. Median time to onset was 79 days (range from 11 to 360 days) with a severity range of grades 1 to 3 for patients receiving Capecitabine monotherapy in the metastatic setting. Grade 1 is characterized by any of the following: numbness, dysesthesia/paresthesia, tingling, painless swelling or erythema of the hands and/or feet and/or discomfort which does not disrupt normal activities. Grade 2 hand-and-foot syndrome is defined as painful erythema and swelling of the hands and/or feet and/or discomfort affecting the patient’s activities of daily living. Grade 3 hand-and-foot syndrome is defined as moist desquamation, ulceration, blistering or severe pain of the hands and/or feet and/or severe discomfort that causes the patient to be unable to work or perform activities of daily living. Persistent or severe hand-and-foot syndrome (grade 2 and above) can eventually lead to loss of fingerprints which could impact patient identification. If grade 2 or 3 hand-and-foot syndrome occurs, administration of Capecitabine should be interrupted until the event resolves or decreases in intensity to grade 1. Following grade 3 hand-and-foot syndrome, subsequent doses of Capecitabine should be decreased [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) ].
In 875 patients with either metastatic breast or colorectal cancer who received at least one dose of capecitabine 1250 mg/m2 twice daily as monotherapy for 2 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period, grade 3 (1.5-3 x ULN) hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 15.2% (n=133) of patients and grade 4 (>3 x ULN) hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 3.9% (n=34) of patients. Of 566 patients who had hepatic metastases at baseline and 309 patients without hepatic metastases at baseline, grade 3 or 4 hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 22.8% and 12.3%, respectively. Of the 167 patients with grade 3 or 4 hyperbilirubinemia, 18.6% (n=31) also had postbaseline elevations (grades 1 to 4, without elevations at baseline) in alkaline phosphatase and 27.5% (n=46) had postbaseline elevations in transaminases at any time (not necessarily concurrent). The majority of these patients, 64.5% (n=20) and 71.7% (n=33), had liver metastases at baseline. In addition, 57.5% (n=96) and 35.3% (n=59) of the 167 patients had elevations (grades 1 to 4) at both prebaseline and postbaseline in alkaline phosphatase or transaminases, respectively. Only 7.8% (n=13) and 3.0% (n=5) had grade 3 or 4 elevations in alkaline phosphatase or transaminases.
In the 596 patients treated with capecitabine as first-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer, the incidence of grade 3 or 4 hyperbilirubinemia was similar to the overall clinical trial safety database of capecitabine monotherapy. The median time to onset for grade 3 or 4 hyperbilirubinemia in the colorectal cancer population was 64 days and median total bilirubin increased from 8 μm/L at baseline to 13 μm/L during treatment with capecitabine. Of the 136 colorectal cancer patients with grade 3 or 4 hyperbilirubinemia, 49 patients had grade 3 or 4 hyperbilirubinemia as their last measured value, of which 46 had liver metastases at baseline.
In 251 patients with metastatic breast cancer who received a combination of capecitabine and docetaxel, grade 3 (1.5 to 3 x ULN) hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 7% (n=17) and grade 4 (>3 x ULN) hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 2% (n=5).
If drug-related grade 3 to 4 elevations in bilirubin occur, administration of capecitabine should be immediately interrupted until the hyperbilirubinemia decreases to ≤3.0 X ULN [ see recommended dose modifications under Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
In 875 patients with either metastatic breast or colorectal cancer who received a dose of 1250 mg/m2 administered twice daily as monotherapy for 2 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period, 3.2%, 1.7%, and 2.4% of patients had grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia or decreases in hemoglobin, respectively. In 251 patients with metastatic breast cancer who received a dose of capecitabine in combination with docetaxel, 68% had grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, 2.8% had grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia, and 9.6% had grade 3 or 4 anemia.
Patients with baseline neutrophil counts of <1.5 x 109 /L and/or thrombocyte counts of <100 x 109 /L should not be treated with capecitabine. If unscheduled laboratory assessments during a treatment cycle show grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity, treatment with capecitabine should be interrupted.
Patients ≥80 years old may experience a greater incidence of grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions. In 875 patients with either metastatic breast or colorectal cancer who received capecitabine monotherapy, 62% of the 21 patients ≥80 years of age treated with capecitabine experienced a treatment-related grade 3 or 4 adverse event: diarrhea in 6 (28.6%), nausea in 3 (14.3%), hand-and-foot syndrome in 3 (14.3%), and vomiting in 2 (9.5%) patients. Among the 10 patients 70 years of age and greater (no patients were >80 years of age) treated with capecitabine in combination with docetaxel, 30% (3 out of 10) of patients experienced grade 3 or 4 diarrhea and stomatitis, and 40% (4 out of 10) experienced grade 3 hand-and-foot syndrome.
Among the 67 patients ≥60 years of age receiving capecitabine in combination with docetaxel, the incidence of grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse reactions, treatment-related serious adverse reactions, withdrawals due to adverse reactions, treatment discontinuations due to adverse reactions and treatment discontinuations within the first two treatment cycles was higher than in the <60 years of age patient group.
In 995 patients receiving capecitabine as adjuvant therapy for Dukes’ C colon cancer after resection of the primary tumor, 41% of the 398 patients ≥65 years of age treated with capecitabine experienced a treatment-related grade 3 or 4 adverse event: hand-and-foot syndrome in 75 (18.8%), diarrhea in 52 (13.1%), stomatitis in 12 (3.0%), neutropenia/granulocytopenia in 11 (2.8%), vomiting in 6 (1.5%), and nausea in 5 (1.3%) patients. In patients ≥65 years of age (all randomized population; capecitabine 188 patients, 5-FU/LV 208 patients) treated for Dukes’ C colon cancer after resection of the primary tumor, the hazard ratios for disease-free survival and overall survival for capecitabine compared to 5-FU/LV were 1.01 (95% C.I. 0.80 – 1.27) and 1.04 (95% C.I. 0.79 – 1.37), respectively.
Patients with mild to moderate hepatic dysfunction due to liver metastases should be carefully monitored when capecitabine is administered. The effect of severe hepatic dysfunction on the disposition of capecitabine is not known [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Use of capecitabine in combination with irinotecan has not been adequately studied.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Table 4 shows the adverse reactions occurring in ≥5% of patients from one phase 3 trial in patients with Dukes’ C colon cancer who received at least one dose of study medication and had at least one safety assessment. A total of 995 patients were treated with 1250 mg/m2 twice a day of capecitabine administered for 2 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period, and 974 patients were administered 5- FU and leucovorin (20 mg/m2 leucovorin IV followed by 425 mg/m2 IV bolus 5-FU on days 1-5 every 28 days). The median duration of treatment was 164 days for capecitabine-treated patients and 145 days for 5-FU/LV-treated patients. A total of 112 (11%) and 73 (7%) capecitabine and 5-FU/LV-treated patients, respectively, discontinued treatment because of adverse reactions. A total of 18 deaths due to all causes occurred either on study or within 28 days of receiving study drug: 8 (0.8%) patients randomized to capecitabine and 10 (1.0%) randomized to 5-FU/LV.
Table 5 shows grade 3/4 laboratory abnormalities occurring in ≥1% of patients from one phase 3 trial in patients with Dukes’ C colon cancer who received at least one dose of study medication and had at least one safety assessment.
|Adjuvant Treatment for Colon Cancer (N=1969)|
|Capecitabine (N=995)||5-FU/LV (N=974)|
|Body System/ Adverse Event||All Grades||Grade 3/4||All Grades||Grade 3/4|
|Upper Abdominal Pain||7||<1||7||<1|
|Skin and SubcutaneousTissue Disorders|
|General Disorders andAdministration Site Conditions|
|Nervous System Disorders|
|Metabolism and NutritionDisorders|
|Blood and Lymphatic SystemDisorders|
|Respiratory Thoracic andMediastinal Disorders|
|*The incidence of grade 3/4 white blood cell abnormalities was 1.3% in the capecitabine arm and 4.9% in the IV 5-FU/LV arm.**It should be noted that grading was according to NCIC CTC Version 1 (May, 1994). In the NCIC-CTC Version 1, hyperbilirubinemia grade 3 indicates a bilirubin value of 1.5 to 3.0 × upper limit of normal (ULN) range, and grade 4 a value of > 3.0 × ULN. The NCI CTC Version 2 and above define a grade 3 bilirubin value of >3.0 to 10.0 × ULN, and grade 4 values >10.0 × ULN.|
|Adverse Event||Capecitabine (n=995) Grade 3/4 %||IV 5-FU/LV (n=974) Grade 3/4 %|
|Increased ALAT (SGPT) Increased calcium Decreased calcium Decreased hemoglobin Decreased lymphocytes Decreased neutrophils*Decreased neutrophils/granulocytes Decreased platelets Increased bilirubin**||1.6 1.1 2.3 1.0 13.0 2.2 2.4 1.0 20||0.6 0.7 2.2 1.2 13.0 26.2 26.4 0.7 6.3|
DrugInserts.com provides trustworthy package insert and label information about marketed drugs as submitted by manufacturers to the US Food and Drug Administration. Package information is not reviewed or updated separately by DrugInserts.com. Every individual package label entry contains a unique identifier which can be used to secure further details directly from the US National Institutes of Health and/or the FDA.