BIVALIRUDIN: Package Insert and Label Information

BIVALIRUDIN- bivalirudin injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution
Meitheal Pharmaceuticals Inc.

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Bivalirudin for Injection is indicated for use as an anticoagulant for use in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) including patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis syndrome.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Recommended Dosage

Bivalirudin for injection has been studied only in patients receiving concomitant aspirin.

The recommended dose of bivalirudin for injection is an intravenous bolus dose of 0.75 mg/kg, followed immediately by an infusion of 1.75 mg/kg/h for the duration of the procedure. Five minutes after the bolus dose has been administered, an activated clotting time (ACT) should be performed and an additional bolus of 0.3 mg/kg should be given if needed.

Extended duration of infusion following PCI at 1.75 mg/kg/h for up to 4 hours post-procedure should be considered in patients with ST segment elevation MI (STEMI).

2.2 Dose Adjustment in Renal Impairment

Bolus Dose

No reduction in the bolus dose is needed for any degree of renal impairment.

Maintenance Infusion

In patients with creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min (by Cockcroft Gault equation), reduce the infusion rate to 1 mg/kg/h. Monitor anticoagulant status in patients with renal impairment.

In patients on hemodialysis, reduce the infusion rate to 0.25 mg/kg/h [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

2.3 Instructions for Preparation and Administration

Bivalirudin for injection is intended for intravenous bolus injection and continuous infusion after reconstitution and dilution.

Preparation Instructions for Bolus Injection and Continuous Infusion

  • To each 250 mg vial, add 5 mL of Sterile Water for Injection, USP.
  • Gently swirl until all material is dissolved.
  • Withdraw and discard 5 mL from a 50 mL infusion bag containing 5% Dextrose in Water or 0.9% Sodium Chloride for Injection.
  • Add the contents of the reconstituted vial to the infusion bag containing 5% Dextrose in Water or 0.9% Sodium Chloride for Injection to yield a final concentration of 5 mg per mL (e.g., 1 vial in 50 mL; 2 vials in 100 mL; 5 vials in 250 mL).
  • Adjust the dose to be administered according to the patient’s weight (see Table 1).
Table 1: Dosing Table
Weight
(kg)
Using 5 mg per mL
Concentration
Bolus Infusion
0.75 mg/kg 1.75 mg/kg/h
(mL) (mL/h)
43-47 7 16
48-52 7.5 17.5
53-57 8 19
58-62 9 21
63-67 10 23
68-72 10.5 24.5
73-77 11 26
78-82 12 28
83-87 13 30
88-92 13.5 31.5
93-97 14 33
98-102 15 35
103-107 16 37
108-112 16.5 38.5
113-117 17 40
118-122 18 42
123-127 19 44
128-132 19.5 45.5
133-137 20 47
138-142 21 49
143-147 22 51
148-152 22.5 52.5

Drug Compatibilities

No incompatibilities have been observed with administration sets.

Do not administer the drugs listed in Table 2 in the same intravenous line with Bivalirudin for injection.

Table 2: Drugs Not for Administration in the Same Intravenous Line with Bivalirudin for injection
Alteplase
Amiodarone HCl
Amphotericin B
Chlorpromazine HCl
Diazepam
Dobutamine
Prochlorperazine Edisylate
Reteplase
Streptokinase
Vancomycin HCl

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. Preparations of bivalirudin for injection containing particulate matter should not be used. Reconstituted material will be a clear to slightly opalescent, colorless to slightly yellow solution.

2.4 Storage after Reconstitution

Do not freeze reconstituted or diluted bivalirudin for injection. Reconstituted material may be stored at 2 to 8°C for up to 24 hours. Diluted bivalirudin for injection with a concentration of between 0.5 mg per mL and 5 mg per mL is stable at room temperature for up to 24 hours. Discard any unused portion of reconstituted solution remaining in the vial.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Bivalirudin for Injection: 250 mg of bivalirudin as a lyophilized powder in a single-dose vial for reconstitution. Each vial contains 250 mg of bivalirudin equivalent to an average of 275 mg bivalirudin trifluoroacetate*.

* The range of bivalirudin trifluoroacetate is 266 to 284 mg based on a range of trifluoroacetic acid composition of 1.2 to 2.6 equivalents.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Bivalirudin is contraindicated in patients with:

  • Active major bleeding;
  • Hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis) to bivalirudin or its components [see Adverse Reactions (6.3)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Bleeding Events

Bivalirudin for injection increases the risk of bleeding [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. An unexplained fall in blood pressure or hematocrit should lead to serious consideration of a hemorrhagic event and cessation of bivalirudin for injection administration. Monitor patients receiving bivalirudin for injection for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Monitor patients with disease states associated with an increased risk of bleeding more frequently for bleeding.

5.2 Acute Stent Thrombosis in Patients with STEMI Undergoing PCI

Acute stent thrombosis (AST) (<4 hours) has been observed at a greater frequency in bivalirudin treated patients (1.2%, 36/2889) compared to heparin treated patients (0.2%, 6/2911) with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. Among patients who experienced an AST, one fatality (0.03%) occurred in an bivalirudin treated patient and one fatality (0.03%) in a heparin treated patient. These patients have been managed by Target Vessel Revascularization (TVR). Patients should remain for at least 24 hours in a facility capable of managing ischemic complications and should be carefully monitored following primary PCI for signs and symptoms consistent with myocardial ischemia.

5.3 Thrombotic Risk with Coronary Artery Brachytherapy

An increased risk of thrombus formation, including fatal outcomes, has been associated with the use of bivalirudin in gamma brachytherapy.

If a decision is made to use bivalirudin during brachytherapy procedures, maintain meticulous catheter technique, with frequent aspiration and flushing, paying special attention to minimizing conditions of stasis within the catheter or vessels [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In the BAT trials, 79 of the 2161 (3.7%) patients undergoing PCI for treatment of unstable angina and randomized to bivalirudin experienced major bleeding events which consisted of: intracranial bleeding, retroperitoneal bleeding, and clinically overt bleeding with a decrease in hemoglobin >3 g/dL or leading to a transfusion of >2 units of blood.

6.2 Immunogenicity

As with all peptides, there is potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to bivalirudin in the studies described below with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other products may be misleading.

In in vitro studies, bivalirudin exhibited no platelet aggregation response against sera from patients with a history of HIT/HITTS.

Among 494 subjects who received bivalirudin in clinical trials and were tested for antibodies, 2 subjects had treatment-emergent positive bivalirudin antibody tests. Neither subject demonstrated clinical evidence of allergic or anaphylactic reactions and repeat testing was not performed. Nine additional patients who had initial positive tests were negative on repeat testing.

6.3 Postmarketing Experience

Because postmarketing adverse reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of bivalirudin: fatal bleeding; hypersensitivity and allergic reactions including reports of anaphylaxis; lack of anticoagulant effect; thrombus formation during PCI with and without intracoronary brachytherapy, including reports of fatal outcomes; pulmonary hemorrhage; cardiac tamponade; and INR increased.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

In clinical trials in patients undergoing PCI/percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), co-administration of bivalirudin with heparin, warfarin, thrombolytics, or GPIs was associated with increased risks of major bleeding events compared to patients not receiving these concomitant medications.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

There are no data available on use of bivalirudin in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. Reproduction studies in rats and rabbits administered subcutaneously doses up to 1.6 times and 3.2 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 15 mg/kg/day based on body surface area (BSA) during organogenesis, respectively, revealed no evidence of fetal harm.

All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively.

Data

Animal Data

Reproductive studies have been performed in rats at subcutaneous doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (1.6 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) and rabbits at subcutaneous doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (3.2 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area). These studies revealed no harm to the fetus attributable to bivalirudin.

At 500 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 5.4 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) subcutaneously, litter sizes and live fetuses in rats were reduced. Fetal skeletal variations were also noted. Some of these changes could be attributed to maternal toxicity observed at high doses.

There is no study covering the peri-natal period because of the potential complications of drug-induced hemorrhage during delivery.

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