Azithromycin: Package Insert and Label Information

AZITHROMYCIN- azithromycin monohydrate tablet, film coated
Advanced Rx Pharmacy of Tennessee, LLC

1. Indications and Usage

Azithromycin tablets are a macrolide antibacterial drug indicated for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the specific conditions listed below. Recommended dosages and durations of therapy in adult and pediatric patient populations vary in these indications [see Dosage and Administration (2)].

1.1 Adult Patients

Acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis due to Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Acute bacterial sinusitis due to Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Community-acquired pneumonia due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients appropriate for oral therapy.
Pharyngitis/tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes as an alternative to first-line therapy in individuals who cannot use first-line therapy.
Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus agalactiae.
Urethritis and cervicitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Genital ulcer disease in men due to Haemophilus ducreyi (chancroid). Due to the small number of women included in clinical trials, the efficacy of azithromycin in the treatment of chancroid in women has not been established.

1.2 Pediatric Patients

[see Use in Specific Populations (8.4) and Clinical Studies (14.2)]

Acute otitis media (> 6 months of age) caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Community-acquired pneumonia (> 6 months of age) due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients appropriate for oral therapy.
Pharyngitis/tonsillitis (> 2 years of age) caused by Streptococcus pyogenes as an alternative to first-line therapy in individuals who cannot use first-line therapy.

1.3 Limitations of Use

Azithromycin should not be used in patients with pneumonia who are judged to be inappropriate for oral therapy because of moderate to severe illness or risk factors such as any of the following:

patients with cystic fibrosis,
patients with nosocomial infections,
patients with known or suspected bacteremia,
patients requiring hospitalization,
elderly or debilitated patients, or patients with significant underlying health problems that may compromise their ability to respond to their illness (including immunodeficiency or functional asplenia).

1.4 Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of azithromycin tablets and other antibacterial drugs, azithromycin tablets should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

2. Dosage and Administration

2.1 Adult Patients

[see Indications and Usage (1.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]

Infection*

Recommended Dose/Duration of Therapy

Community-acquired pneumonia

Pharyngitis/tonsillitis (second-line therapy)

Skin/skin structure (uncomplicated)

500 mg as a single dose on Day 1, followed by 250 mg once daily on Days 2 through 5

Acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

500 mg once daily for 3 days

OR

500 mg as a single dose on Day 1, followed by 250 mg once daily on Days 2 through 5

Acute bacterial sinusitis

500 mg once daily for 3 days

Genital ulcer disease (chancroid)

One single 1 gram dose

Non-gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis

One single 1 gram dose

Gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis

One single 2 gram dose

*DUE TO THE INDICATED ORGANISMS [see Indications and Usage (1.1)]

Azithromycin tablets can be taken with or without food.

2.2 Pediatric Patients1

Infection*

Recommended Dose/Duration of Therapy

Acute otitis media

30 mg/kg as a single dose or 10 mg/kg once daily for 3 days or 10 mg/kg as a single dose on Day 1 followed by 5 mg/kg/day on Days 2 through 5.

Acute bacterial sinusitis

10 mg/kg once daily for 3 days.

Community-acquired pneumonia

10 mg/kg as a single dose on Day 1 followed by 5 mg/kg once daily on Days 2 through 5.

Pharyngitis/tonsillitis

12 mg/kg once daily for 5 days.

*DUE TO THE INDICATED ORGANISMS [see Indications and Usage (1.2)]

1 see dosing tables below for maximum doses evaluated by indication

Azithromycin for oral suspension can be taken with or without food.

PEDIATRIC DOSAGE GUIDELINES FOR OTITIS MEDIA, ACUTE BACTERIAL SINUSITIS, AND COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

(Age 6 months and above, [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)])

Based on Body Weight

OTITIS MEDIA AND COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA: (5 Day Regimen)*

Dosing Calculated on 10 mg/kg/day Day 1 and 5 mg/kg/day Days 2 to 5.

Weight

100 mg/5 mL

200 mg/5 mL

Total mL per Treatment Course

Total mg per Treatment Course

Kg

Day 1

Days 2 to 5

Day 1

Days 2 to 5

5

2.5 mL; (½ tsp)

1.25 mL; (¼ tsp)

7.5 mL

150 mg

10

5 mL; (1 tsp)

2.5 mL; (½ tsp)

15 mL

300 mg

20

5 mL; (1 tsp)

2.5 mL; (½ tsp)

15 mL

600 mg

30

7.5 mL; (1½ tsp)

3.75 mL; (¾ tsp)

22.5 mL

900 mg

40

10 mL; (2 tsp)

5 mL; (1 tsp)

30 mL

1200 mg

50 and above

12.5 mL; (2½ tsp)

6.25 mL; (1¼ tsp)

37.5 mL

1500 mg

* Effectiveness of the 3 day or 1 day regimen in pediatric patients with community-acquired pneumonia has not been established.

OTITIS MEDIA AND ACUTE BACTERIAL SINUSITIS: (3 Day Regimen)*

Dosing Calculated on 10 mg/kg/day.

Weight

100 mg/5 mL

200 mg/5 mL

Total mL per Treatment Course

Total mg per Treatment Course

Kg

Days 1 to 3

Days 1 to 3

5

2.5 mL; (½ tsp)

7.5 mL

150 mg

10

5 mL; (1 tsp)

15 mL

300 mg

20

5 mL

(1 tsp)

15 mL

600 mg

30

7.5 mL

(1½ tsp)

22.5 mL

900 mg

40

10 mL

(2 tsp)

30 mL

1200 mg

50 and above

12.5 mL

(2½ tsp)

37.5 mL

1500 mg

*Effectiveness of the 5 day or 1 day regimen in pediatric patients with acute bacterial sinusitis has not been established.

OTITIS MEDIA: (1 Day Regimen)

Dosing Calculated on 30 mg/kg as a single dose.

Weight

200 mg/5 mL

Total mL per Treatment Course

Total mg per Treatment Course

Kg

1 Day Regimen

5

3.75 mL;

(¾ tsp)

3.75 mL

150 mg

10

7.5 mL;

(1½ tsp)

7.5 mL

300 mg

20

15 mL;

(3 tsp)

15 mL

600 mg

30

22.5 mL;

(4½ tsp)

22.5 mL

900 mg

40

30 mL;

(6 tsp)

30 mL

1200 mg

50 and above

37.5 mL;

(7½ tsp)

37.5 mL

1500 mg

The safety of re-dosing azithromycin in pediatric patients who vomit after receiving 30 mg/kg as a single dose has not been established. In clinical studies involving 487 patients with acute otitis media given a single 30 mg/kg dose of azithromycin, 8 patients who vomited within 30 minutes of dosing were re-dosed at the same total dose.

Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis: The recommended dose of azithromycin for children with pharyngitis/tonsillitis is 12 mg/kg once daily for 5 days. (See chart below.)

PEDIATRIC DOSAGE GUIDELINES FOR PHARYNGITIS/TONSILLITIS

(Age 2 years and above, [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)])

Based on Body Weight

PHARYNGITIS/TONSILLITIS: (5 Day Regimen)

Dosing Calculated on 12 mg/kg/day for 5 days.

Weight

200 mg/5 mL

Total mL per Treatment Course

Total mg per Treatment Course

Kg

Day 1 to 5

8

2.5 mL;

(½ tsp)

12.5 mL

500 mg

17

5 mL;

(1 tsp)

25 mL

1000 mg

25

7.5 mL;

(1½ tsp)

37.5 mL

1500 mg

33

10 mL;

(2 tsp)

50 mL

2000 mg

40

12.5 mL;

(2½ tsp)

62.5 mL

2500 mg

3. Dosage Forms and Strengths

Azithromycin Tablets USP, 250 mg are supplied as white, oval, biconvex, film-coated tablets, debossed with “787” on one side and “PLIVA” on the other, containing azithromycin monohydrate equivalent to 250 mg of azithromycin, USP.

4. Contraindications

4.1 Hypersensitivity

Azithromycin tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to azithromycin, erythromycin, any macrolide or ketolide drug.

4.2 Hepatic Dysfunction

Azithromycin tablets are contraindicated in patients with a history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with prior use of azithromycin.

5. Warnings and Precautions

5.1 Hypersensitivity

Serious allergic reactions, including angioedema, anaphylaxis, and dermatologic reactions including Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported in patients on azithromycin therapy [see Contraindications (4.1)].

Fatalities have been reported. Cases of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) have also been reported. Despite initially successful symptomatic treatment of the allergic symptoms, when symptomatic therapy was discontinued, the allergic symptoms recurred soon thereafter in some patients without further azithromycin exposure. These patients required prolonged periods of observation and symptomatic treatment. The relationship of these episodes to the long tissue half-life of azithromycin and subsequent prolonged exposure to antigen is presently unknown.

If an allergic reaction occurs, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be instituted. Physicians should be aware that allergic symptoms may reappear when symptomatic therapy has been discontinued.

5.2 Hepatotoxicity

Abnormal liver function, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported, some of which have resulted in death. Discontinue azithromycin immediately if signs and symptoms of hepatitis occur.

5.3 Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis (IHPS)

Following the use of azithromycin in neonates (treatment up to 42 days of life), IHPS has been reported. Direct parents and caregivers to contact their physician if vomiting or irritability with feeding occurs.

5.4 QT Prolongation

Prolonged cardiac repolarization and QT interval, imparting a risk of developing cardiac arrhythmia and torsades de pointes, have been seen with treatment with macrolides, including azithromycin. Cases of torsades de pointes have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving azithromycin. Providers should consider the risk of QT prolongation which can be fatal when weighing the risks and benefits of azithromycin for at-risk groups including:

patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, a history of torsades de pointes, congenital long QT syndrome, bradyarrhythmias or uncompensated heart failure
patients on drugs known to prolong the QT interval
patients with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions such as uncorrected hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, clinically significant bradycardia, and in patients receiving Class IA (quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (dofetilide, amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents.

Elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval.

5.5 Cardiovascular Death

Some observational studies have shown an approximately two-fold increased short-term potential risk of acute cardiovascular death in adults exposed to azithromycin relative to other antibacterial drugs, including amoxicillin. The five-day cardiovascular mortality observed in these studies ranged from 20 to 400 per million azithromycin treatment courses. This potential risk was noted to be greater during the first five days of azithromycin use and does not appear to be limited to those patients with preexisting cardiovascular diseases. The data in these observational studies are insufficient to establish or exclude a causal relationship between acute cardiovascular death and azithromycin use. Consider balancing this potential risk with treatment benefits when prescribing azithromycin.

5.6 Clostridioides difficile-Associated Diarrhea (CDAD)

Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including azithromycin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon, leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antibacterial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

5.7 Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis

Exacerbation of symptoms of myasthenia gravis and new onset of myasthenic syndrome have been reported in patients receiving azithromycin therapy.

5.8 Use in Sexually Transmitted Infections

Azithromycin, at the recommended dose, should not be relied upon to treat syphilis. Antibacterial agents used to treat non-gonococcal urethritis may mask or delay the symptoms of incubating syphilis. All patients with sexually transmitted urethritis or cervicitis should have a serologic test for syphilis and appropriate testing for gonorrhea performed at the time of diagnosis. Appropriate antibacterial therapy and follow-up tests for these diseases should be initiated if infection is confirmed.

5.9 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing azithromycin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

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