Azelastine Hydrochloride: Package Insert and Label Information

AZELASTINE HYDROCHLORIDE- azelastine hydrochloride spray, metered
Apotex Corp.

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1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray is indicated for the treatment of the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis in adults and pediatric patients 5 years and older, and for the treatment of the symptoms of vasomotor rhinitis in adults and adolescent patients 12 years and older.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis

The recommended dosage of azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray in adults and adolescent patients 12 years and older with seasonal allergic rhinitis is one or two sprays per nostril twice daily. The recommended dosage of azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray in pediatric patients 5 years to 11 years of age is one spray per nostril twice daily.

2.2 Vasomotor Rhinitis

The recommended dosage of azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray in adults and adolescent patients 12 years and older with vasomotor rhinitis is two sprays per nostril twice daily.

2.3 Important Administration Instructions

Administer azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray by the intranasal route only.

Priming
Prime azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray before initial use by releasing 4 sprays or until a fine mist appears. When azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray has not been used for 3 or more days, reprime with 2 sprays or until a fine mist appears. Avoid spraying azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray into the eyes.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray is a nasal spray solution. Each spray of azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray delivers a volume of 0.137 mL solution containing 137 mcg of azelastine hydrochloride.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

None.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Somnolence in Activities Requiring Mental Alertness

In clinical trials, the occurrence of somnolence has been reported in some patients taking azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Patients should be cautioned against engaging in hazardous occupations requiring complete mental alertness and motor coordination such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle after administration of azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray. Concurrent use of azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants should be avoided because additional reductions in alertness and additional impairment of central nervous system performance may occur [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

Use of azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray has been associated with somnolence [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect rates observed in practice.

Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis Azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray Two Sprays Per Nostril Twice Daily

Adverse experience information for azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray is derived from six placebo- and active- controlled, 2-day to 8-week clinical trials which included 391 patients, 12 years of age and older, with seasonal allergic rhinitis who received azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray at a dose of 2 sprays per nostril twice daily. In placebo-controlled efficacy trials, the incidence of discontinuation due to adverse reactions in patients receiving azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray and vehicle placebo was 2.2% and 2.8%, respectively.

Table 1 contains adverse reactions that were reported with frequencies ≥2% in the azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray 2 sprays per nostril twice daily treatment group and more frequently than placebo.

Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥2% Incidence in Placebo-Controlled Trials in Patients with Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis [n (%)]
Azelastine hydrochloride Nasal Spray N = 391 Vehicle Placebo N = 353
Bitter Taste 77 (19.7%) 2 (0.6%)
Headache 58 (14.8%) 45 (12.7%)
Somnolence 45 (11.5%) 19 (5.4%)
Nasal Burning 16 (4.1%) 6 (1.7%)
Pharyngitis 15 (3.8%) 10 (2.8%)
Paroxysmal Sneezing 12 (3.1%) 4 (1.1%)
Dry Mouth 11 (2.8%) 6 (1.7%)
Nausea 11 (2.8%) 4 (1.1%)
Rhinitis 9 (2.3%) 5 (1.4%)
Fatigue 9 (2.3%) 5 (1.4%)
Dizziness 8 (2.0%) 5 (1.4%)
Epistaxis 8 (2.0%) 5 (1.4%)
Weight Increase 8 (2.0%) 0 (0.0%)

Azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray One Spray Per Nostril Twice Daily

Adverse experience information for azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray at a dose of one spray per nostril twice daily is derived from two placebo-controlled 2-week clinical studies which included 276 patients 12 years of age and older with seasonal allergic rhinitis. The incidence of discontinuation due to adverse reactions in patients receiving azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray and vehicle placebo was 0.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Bitter taste was reported in 8.3% of patients compared to none in the placebo group. Somnolence was reported in 0.4% of patients compared to none in the placebo group.

A total of 176 patients 5 to 11 years of age were exposed to azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray at a dose of 1 spray each nostril twice daily in 3 placebo-controlled studies. In these studies, adverse reactions that occurred more frequently in patients treated with azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray than with placebo, and that were not represented in the adult adverse reactions table above include rhinitis/cold symptoms (17.0% vs. 9.5%), cough (11.4% vs. 8.3%), conjunctivitis (5.1% vs. 1.8%), and asthma (4.5% vs. 4.1%).

Adverse Reactions <2% in azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray One or Two Sprays Per Nostril Twice Daily

The following reactions were observed infrequently (<2% and exceeding placebo incidence) in patients who received azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray dosed at 1 or 2 sprays per nostril twice daily in U.S. clinical trials.

Cardiovascular
Flushing, hypertension, tachycardia.

Dermatological
Contact dermatitis, eczema, hair and follicle infection, furunculosis, skin laceration.

Digestive
Constipation, gastroenteritis, glossitis, ulcerative stomatitis, vomiting, increased SGPT, aphthous stomatitis, diarrhea, toothache.

Metabolic and Nutritional
Increased appetite.

Musculoskeletal
Myalgia, temporomandibular dislocation, rheumatoid arthritis.

Neurological
Hyperkinesias, hypoesthesia, vertigo.

Psychological
Anxiety, depersonalization, depression, nervousness, sleep disorder, thinking abnormal.

Respiratory
Bronchospasm, coughing, throat burning, laryngitis, bronchitis, dry throat, nocturnal dyspnea, nasopharyngitis, nasal congestion, pharyngolaryngeal pain, sinusitis, nasal dryness, paranasal sinus hypersecretion, post nasal drip.

Special Senses
Conjunctivitis, eye abnormality, eye pain, watery eyes, taste loss.

Urogenital
Albuminuria, amenorrhea, breast pain, hematuria, increased urinary frequency.

Whole Body
Allergic reaction, back pain, herpes simplex, viral infection, malaise, pain in extremities, abdominal pain, pyrexia.

Vasomotor RhinitisAdverse experience information for azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray is derived from two placebo-controlled clinical studies which included 216 patients 12 years and older with vasomotor rhinitis who received azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray at a dose of 2 sprays per nostril twice daily for up to 28 days. The incidence of discontinuation due to adverse reactions in patients receiving azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray and vehicle placebo was 2.8% and 2.9%, respectively.

The following adverse reactions were reported with frequencies ≥ 2% in the azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray treatment group and more frequently than placebo.

Table 2: Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥2% Incidence in Placebo-Controlled Trials in Patients with Vasomotor Rhinitis [n (%)]
Azelastine hydrochloride Nasal Spray N = 216 Vehicle Placebo N = 210
Bitter Taste 42 (19.4%) 5 (2.4%)
Headache 17 (7.9%) 16 (7.6%)
Dysesthesia 17 (7.9%) 7 (3.3%)
Rhinitis 12 (5.6%) 5 (2.4%)
Epistaxis 7 (3.2%) 5 (2.4%)
Sinusitis 7 (3.2%) 4 (1.9%)
Somnolence 7 (3.2%) 2 (1.0%)

Reactions observed infrequently (<2% and exceeding placebo incidence) in patients who received azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray (2 sprays/nostril twice daily) in U.S. clinical trials in vasomotor rhinitis were similar to those observed in U.S. clinical trials in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

In controlled trials involving nasal and oral azelastine hydrochloride formulations, there were infrequent occurrences of hepatic transaminase elevations.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

During the post approval use of azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray, the following adverse reactions have been identified. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Adverse reactions reported include: anaphylaxis, application site irritation, atrial fibrillation, chest pain, confusion, dyspnea, facial edema, involuntary muscle contractions, nasal sores, palpitations, paresthesia, parosmia, pruritus, rash, disturbance or loss of sense of smell and/or taste, tolerance, urinary retention, vision abnormal and xerophthalmia.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Central Nervous System Depressants

Concurrent use of azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants should be avoided because reductions in alertness and impairment of central nervous system performance may occur [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Limited data from postmarketing experience over decades of use with azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray in pregnant women have not identified any drug associated risks of miscarriage, birth defects, or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In animal reproduction studies, there was no evidence of fetal harm at oral doses approximately 5 times the clinical daily dose. Oral administration of azelastine hydrochloride to pregnant mice, rats, and rabbits, during the period of organogenesis, produced developmental toxicity that included structural abnormalities, decreased embryo-fetal survival, and decreased fetal body weights at doses 270 times and higher than the maximum recommended human daily intranasal dose (MRHDID) of 1.096 mg. However, the relevance of these findings in animals to pregnant women was considered questionable based upon the high animal to human dose multiple.

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.

Data

Animal Data

In an embryo-fetal development study in mice dosed during the period of organogenesis, azelastine hydrochloride caused embryo-fetal death, structural abnormalities (cleft palate; short or absent tail; fused, absent or branched ribs), delayed ossification, and decreased fetal weight at approximately 300 times the maximum recommended human daily intranasal dose (MRHDID) in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 68.6 mg/kg/day), which also caused maternal toxicity as evidenced by decreased maternal body weight. Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred in mice at approximately 15 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 3 mg/kg/day).

In an embryo-fetal development study in pregnant rats dosed during the period of organogenesis from gestation days 7 to 17, azelastine hydrochloride caused structural abnormalities (oligo-and brachydactylia), delayed ossification, and skeletal variations, in the absence of maternal toxicity, at approximately 270 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 30 mg/kg/day). Azelastine hydrochloride caused embryo-fetal death and decreased fetal weight and severe maternal toxicity at approximately 610 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 68.6 mg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred at approximately 20 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 2 mg/kg/day).

In an embryo-fetal development study in pregnant rabbits dosed during the period of organogenesis from gestation days 6 to 18, azelastine hydrochloride caused abortion, delayed ossification and decreased fetal weight and severe maternal toxicity at approximately 530 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 30 mg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred at approximately 5 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 0.3 mg/kg/day).

In a prenatal and postnatal development study in pregnant rats dosed from late in the gestation period and through the lactation period from gestation day 17 through lactation day 21, azelastine hydrochloride produced no adverse developmental effects on pups at maternal doses up to approximately 270 times the MRHDID (on mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 30 mg/kg/day).

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

There are no data on the presence of azelastine hydrochloride in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Breastfed infants should be monitored for signs of milk rejection during azelastine hydrochloride use by lactating women (see Clinical Considerations). The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for azelastine hydrochloride and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from azelastine hydrochloride or from the underlying maternal condition.

Clinical Considerations

Monitoring for Adverse Reactions

Breastfed infants of lactating women treated with azelastine hydrochloride should be monitored for possible signs of milk rejection related to the bitter taste of azelastine hydrochloride.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray for the treatment of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis have been established for patients 5 years and older [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Studies (14.1)]. The safety and effectiveness of azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray for the treatment of vasomotor rhinitis have been established for patients 12 years and older [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Studies (14.2)]. The safety and effectiveness of azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray in pediatric patients below the age of 5 years with seasonal allergic rhinitis and in pediatric patients below the age of 12 years with vasomotor rhinitis have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical trials of azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

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