ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM- atorvastatin calcium trihydrate tablet, film coated
Therapy with lipid-altering agents should be only one component of multiple risk factor intervention in individuals at significantly increased risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease due to hypercholesterolemia. Drug therapy is recommended as an adjunct to diet when the response to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol and other nonpharmacologic measures alone has been inadequate. In patients with CHD or multiple risk factors for CHD, atorvastatin calcium tablets can be started simultaneously with diet.
In adult patients without clinically evident coronary heart disease, but with multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease such as age, smoking, hypertension, low HDL-C, or a family history of early coronary heart disease, atorvastatin calcium tablet is indicated to:
- Reduce the risk of myocardial infarction
- Reduce the risk of stroke
- Reduce the risk for revascularization procedures and angina
In adult patients with type 2 diabetes, and without clinically evident coronary heart disease, but with multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease such as retinopathy, albuminuria, smoking, or hypertension, atorvastatin calcium tablet is indicated to:
- Reduce the risk of myocardial infarction
- Reduce the risk of stroke
In adult patients with clinically evident coronary heart disease, atorvastatin calcium tablet is indicated to:
- Reduce the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction
- Reduce the risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke
- Reduce the risk for revascularization procedures
- Reduce the risk of hospitalization for CHF
- Reduce the risk of angina
Atorvastatin calcium tablet is indicated:
- As an adjunct to diet to reduce elevated total-C, LDL-C, apo B, and TG levels and to increase HDL-C in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolemia (heterozygous familial and nonfamilial) and mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb);
- As an adjunct to diet for the treatment of adult patients with elevated serum TG levels (Fredrickson Type IV);
- For the treatment of adult patients with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III) who do not respond adequately to diet;
- To reduce total-C and LDL-C in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering treatments (e.g., LDL apheresis) or if such treatments are unavailable;
- As an adjunct to diet to reduce total-C, LDL-C, and apo B levels in pediatric patients, 10 years to 17 years of age, with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) if after an adequate trial of diet therapy the following findings are present:
- LDL-C remains ≥ 190 mg/dL or
- LDL-C remains ≥ 160 mg/dL and:
- there is a positive family history of premature cardiovascular disease or
- two or more other CVD risk factors are present in the pediatric patient
Atorvastatin calcium tablets have not been studied in conditions where the major lipoprotein abnormality is elevation of chylomicrons (Fredrickson Types I and V).
The recommended starting dose of atorvastatin calcium tablet is 10 or 20 mg once daily. Patients who require a large reduction in LDL-C (more than 45%) may be started at 40 mg once daily. The dosage range of atorvastatin calcium tablet is 10 to 80 mg once daily. Atorvastatin calcium tablets can be administered as a single dose at any time of the day, with or without food. The starting dose and maintenance doses of atorvastatin calcium tablets should be individualized according to patient characteristics such as goal of therapy and response. After initiation and/or upon titration of atorvastatin calcium tablets, lipid levels should be analyzed within 2 to 4 weeks and dosage adjusted accordingly.
The recommended starting dose of atorvastatin calcium tablet is 10 mg/day; the usual dose range is 10 to 20 mg orally once daily [see Clinical Studies ( 14.6)]. Doses should be individualized according to the recommended goal of therapy [see Indications and Usage ( 1.2) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12)]. Adjustments should be made at intervals of 4 weeks or more.
The dosage of atorvastatin calcium tablets in patients with HoFH is 10 to 80 mg daily. Atorvastatin calcium tablets should be used as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering treatments (e.g., LDL apheresis) in these patients or if such treatments are unavailable.
Atorvastatin calcium tablets may be used with bile acid resins. The combination of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and fibrates should generally be used with caution [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Drug Interactions (7)].
Renal disease does not affect the plasma concentrations nor LDL-C reduction of atorvastatin calcium tablets; thus, dosage adjustment in patients with renal dysfunction is not necessary [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
2.6 Dosage in Patients Taking Cyclosporine, Clarithromycin, Itraconazole, Letermovir, or Certain Protease Inhibitors
In patients taking cyclosporine or the HIV protease inhibitor tipranavir plus ritonavir or the hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitor glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir or letermovir when co-administered with cyclosporine, therapy with atorvastatin calcium should be avoided. In patients with HIV taking lopinavir plus ritonavir, use the lowest dose necessary of atorvastatin calcium. In patients taking clarithromycin, itraconazole, elbasvir plus grazoprevir, or in patients with HIV taking a combination of saquinavir plus ritonavir, darunavir plus ritonavir, fosamprenavir, fosamprenavir plus ritonavir or letermovir therapy with atorvastatin calcium should be limited to 20 mg, and appropriate clinical assessment is recommended to ensure that the lowest dose necessary of atorvastatin calcium is used. In patients taking the HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir therapy with atorvastatin calcium should be limited to 40 mg [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Atorvastatin calcium tablets USP are white to off white, oval, biconvex, film-coated, and are available in four strengths (see Table 1).
|Tablet Strength||Identifying Features|
|10 mg of atorvastatin||debossed with “FF1” on one side and plain on other side|
|20 mg of atorvastatin||debossed with “FF2” on one side and plain on other side|
|40 mg of atorvastatin||debossed with “FF3” on one side and plain on other side|
|80 mg of atorvastatin||debossed with “FF4” on one side and plain on other side|
- Active Liver Disease, Which May Include Unexplained Persistent Elevations in Hepatic Transaminase Levels
- Hypersensitivity to Any Component of This Medication
- Pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1, 8.3)].
- Lactation [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.2)].
Atorvastatin may cause myopathy (muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness with creatine kinase (CK) above ten times the upper limit of normal) and rhabdomyolysis (with or without acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria). Rare fatalities have occurred as a result of rhabdomyolysis with statin use, including atorvastatin.
Risk Factors for Myopathy
Risk factors for myopathy include age 65 years or greater, uncontrolled hypothyroidism, renal impairment, concomitant use with certain other drugs, and higher atorvastatin dosage [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Steps to Prevent or Reduce the Risk of Myopathy and Rhabdomyolysis Atorvastatin exposure may be increased by drug interactions due to inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4) and/or transporters (e.g., breast cancer resistant protein [BCRP], organic anion-transporting polypeptide [OATP1B1/OATP1B3] and P-glycoprotein [P-gp]), resulting in an increased risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Concomitant use of cyclosporine, gemfibrozil, tipranavir plus ritonavir, or glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir with atorvastatin is not recommended. Atorvastatin dosage modifications are recommended for patients taking certain anti-viral, azole antifungals, or macrolide antibiotic medications [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)] . Cases of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis have been reported with atorvastatin coadministered with lipid modifying doses (>1 gram/day) of niacin, fibrates, colchicine, and ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir. Consider if the benefit of use of these products outweighs the increased risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis [see Drug Interactions (7.1)] .
. Concomitant intake of large quantities, more than 1.2 liters daily, of grapefruit juice is not recommended in patients taking atorvastatin [see Drug Interactions (7.1)] .
. Discontinue atorvastatin if markedly elevated CK levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed or suspected. Muscle symptoms and CK increases may resolve if atorvastatin is discontinued. Temporarily discontinue atorvastatin in patients experiencing an acute or serious condition at high risk of developing renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis (e.g., sepsis; shock; severe hypovolemia; major surgery; trauma; severe metabolic, endocrine, or electrolyte disorders; or uncontrolled epilepsy)..
Inform patients of the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis when starting or increasing the atorvastatin dosage. Instruct patients to promptly report any unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever.
There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), an autoimmune myopathy, associated with statin use. IMNM is characterized by: proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase, which persist despite discontinuation of statin treatment; positive anti-HMG CoA reductase antibody; muscle biopsy showing necrotizing myopathy; and improvement with immunosuppressive agents. Additional neuromuscular and serologic testing may be necessary. Treatment with immunosuppressive agents may be required. Consider risk of IMNM carefully prior to initiation of a different statin. If therapy is initiated with a different statin, monitor for signs and symptoms of IMNM.
Statins, like some other lipid-lowering therapies, have been associated with biochemical abnormalities of liver function. Persistent elevations (>3 times the upper limit of normal [ULN] occurring on 2 or more occasions) in serum transaminases occurred in 0.7% of patients who received atorvastatin calcium in clinical trials. The incidence of these abnormalities was 0.2%, 0.2%, 0.6%, and 2.3% for 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg, respectively.
One patient in clinical trials developed jaundice. Increases in liver function tests (LFT) in other patients were not associated with jaundice or other clinical signs or symptoms. Upon dose reduction, drug interruption, or discontinuation, transaminase levels returned to or near pretreatment levels without sequelae. Eighteen of 30 patients with persistent LFT elevations continued treatment with a reduced dose of atorvastatin calcium.
It is recommended that liver enzyme tests be obtained prior to initiating therapy with atorvastatin calcium and repeated as clinically indicated. There have been rare postmarketing reports of fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure in patients taking statins, including atorvastatin. If serious liver injury with clinical symptoms and/or hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice occurs during treatment with atorvastatin calcium, promptly interrupt therapy. If an alternate etiology is not found, do not restart atorvastatin calcium.
Atorvastatin calcium should be used with caution in patients who consume substantial quantities of alcohol and/or have a history of liver disease. Active liver disease or unexplained persistent transaminase elevations are contraindications to the use of atorvastatin calcium [see Contraindications (4).
Increases in HbA1c and fasting serum glucose levels have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including atorvastatin calcium.
Statins interfere with cholesterol synthesis and theoretically might blunt adrenal and/or gonadal steroid production. Clinical studies have shown that atorvastatin calcium does not reduce basal plasma cortisol concentration or impair adrenal reserve. The effects of statins on male fertility have not been studied in adequate numbers of patients. The effects, if any, on the pituitary-gonadal axis in premenopausal women are unknown. Caution should be exercised if a statin is administered concomitantly with drugs that may decrease the levels or activity of endogenous steroid hormones, such as ketoconazole, spironolactone, and cimetidine.
Brain hemorrhage was seen in a female dog treated for 3 months at 120 mg/kg/day. Brain hemorrhage and optic nerve vacuolation were seen in another female dog that was sacrificed in moribund condition after 11 weeks of escalating doses up to 280 mg/kg/day. The 120 mg/kg dose resulted in a systemic exposure approximately 16 times the human plasma area-under-the-curve (AUC, 0 to 24 hours) based on the maximum human dose of 80 mg/day. A single tonic convulsion was seen in each of 2 male dogs (one treated at 10 mg/kg/day and one at 120 mg/kg/day) in a 2-year study. No CNS lesions have been observed in mice after chronic treatment for up to 2 years at doses up to 400 mg/kg/day or in rats at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day. These doses were 6 to 11 times (mouse) and 8 to 16 times (rat) the human AUC (0 to 24) based on the maximum recommended human dose of 80 mg/day.
CNS vascular lesions, characterized by perivascular hemorrhages, edema, and mononuclear cell infiltration of perivascular spaces, have been observed in dogs treated with other members of this class. A chemically similar drug in this class produced optic nerve degeneration (Wallerian degeneration of retinogeniculate fibers) in clinically normal dogs in a dose-dependent fashion at a dose that produced plasma drug levels about 30 times higher than the mean drug level in humans taking the highest recommended dose.
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