Aripiprazole: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 3 of 8)

5.7 Pathological Gambling and Other Compulsive Behaviors

Post-marketing case reports suggest that patients can experience intense urges, particularly for gambling, and the inability to control these urges while taking aripiprazole. Other compulsive urges, reported less frequently, include: sexual urges, shopping, eating or binge eating, and other impulsive or compulsive behaviors. Because patients may not recognize these behaviors as abnormal, it is important for prescribers to ask patients or their caregivers specifically about the development of new or intense gambling urges, compulsive sexual urges, compulsive shopping, binge or compulsive eating, or other urges while being treated with aripiprazole. It should be noted that impulse-control symptoms can be associated with the underlying disorder. In some cases, although not all, urges were reported to have stopped when the dose was reduced or the medication was discontinued. Compulsive behaviors may result in harm to the patient and others if not recognized. Consider dose reduction or stopping the medication if a patient develops such urges.

5.8 Orthostatic Hypotension

Aripiprazole may cause orthostatic hypotension, perhaps due to its α1-adrenergic receptor antagonism. The incidence of orthostatic hypotension-associated events from short-term, placebo-controlled trials of adult patients on oral aripiprazole (n=2467) included (aripiprazole incidence, placebo incidence) orthostatic hypotension (1%, 0.3%), postural dizziness (0.5%, 0.3%), and syncope (0.5%, 0.4%); of pediatric patients 6 to 18 years of age (n=732) on oral aripiprazole included orthostatic hypotension (0.5%, 0%), postural dizziness (0.4%, 0 %), and syncope (0.2%, 0%) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

The incidence of a significant orthostatic change in blood pressure (defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure ≥20 mmHg accompanied by an increase in heart rate ≥25 bpm when comparing standing to supine values) for aripiprazole was not meaningfully different from placebo (aripiprazole incidence, placebo incidence): in adult oral aripiprazole-treated patients (4%, 2%), in pediatric oral aripiprazole-treated patients aged 6 to 18 years (0.4%, 1%).

Aripiprazole should be used with caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease, heart failure or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, or conditions which would predispose patients to hypotension (dehydration, hypovolemia, and treatment with antihypertensive medications) [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

5.9 Falls

Antipsychotics, including aripiprazole may cause somnolence, postural hypotension, motor and sensory instability, which may lead to falls and, consequently, fractures or other injuries. For patients with diseases, conditions, or medications that could exacerbate these effects, complete fall risk assessments when initiating antipsychotic treatment and recurrently for patients on long-term antipsychotic therapy.

5.10 Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis

In clinical trials and/or postmarketing experience, events of leukopenia and neutropenia have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents, including aripiprazole. Agranulocytosis has also been reported.

Possible risk factors for leukopenia/neutropenia include pre-existing low white blood cell count (WBC)/absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and history of drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia. In patients with a history of a clinically significant low WBC/ANC or drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia, perform a complete blood count (CBC) frequently during the first few months of therapy. In such patients, consider discontinuation of aripiprazole at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors.

Monitor patients with clinically significant neutropenia for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treat promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Discontinue aripiprazole in patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <1000/mm3) and follow their WBC counts until recovery.

5.11 Seizures/Convulsions

In short-term, placebo-controlled trials, patients with a history of seizures excluded seizures/convulsions occurred in 0.1% (3/2467) of undiagnosed adult patients treated with oral aripiprazole, in 0.1% (1/732) of pediatric patients (6 to 18 years).

As with other antipsychotic drugs, aripiprazole should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that lower the seizure threshold. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in a population of 65 years or older.

5.12 Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment

Aripiprazole, like other antipsychotics, may have the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. For example, in short-term, placebo-controlled trials, somnolence (including sedation) was reported as follows (aripiprazole incidence, placebo incidence): in adult patients (n=2467) treated with oral aripiprazole (11%, 6%), in pediatric patients ages 6 to 17 (n=611) (24%, 6%). Somnolence (including sedation) led to discontinuation in 0.3% (8/2467) of adult patients and 3% (20/732) of pediatric patients (6 to 18 years) on oral aripiprazole in short-term, placebo-controlled trials.
Despite the relatively modest increased incidence of these events compared to placebo, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that therapy with aripiprazole does not affect them adversely.

5.13 Body Temperature Regulation

Disruption of the body’s ability to reduce core body temperature has been attributed to antipsychotic agents. Appropriate care is advised when prescribing aripiprazole for patients who will be experiencing conditions which may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature, (e.g., exercising strenuously, exposure to extreme heat, receiving concomitant medication with anticholinergic activity, or being subject to dehydration) [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5.14 Suicide

The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in psychotic illnesses, bipolar disorder, and close supervision of high-risk patients should accompany drug therapy. Prescriptions for aripiprazole should be written for the smallest quantity consistent with good patient management in order to reduce the risk of overdose [see Adverse Reactions (6.1, 6.2)].

5.15 Dysphagia

Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use, including aripiprazole. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients, in particular those with advanced Alzheimer’s dementia. Aripiprazole and other antipsychotic drugs should be used cautiously in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The following are adverse reactions discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:

  • Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
  • Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, Including Stroke [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
  • Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
  • Tardive Dyskinesia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
  • Metabolic Changes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
  • Pathological Gambling and Other Compulsive Behaviors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
  • Orthostatic Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
  • Falls [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
  • Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]
  • Seizures/Convulsions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]
  • Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]
  • Body Temperature Regulation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)]
  • Suicide [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14)]
  • Dysphagia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15)]

The most common adverse reactions in adult patients in clinical trials (≥10%) were nausea, vomiting, constipation, headache, dizziness, akathisia, anxiety, insomnia, and restlessness.

The most common adverse reactions in the pediatric clinical trials (≥10%) were somnolence, headache, vomiting, extrapyramidal disorder, fatigue, increased appetite, insomnia, nausea, nasopharyngitis, and weight increased.

Aripiprazole has been evaluated for safety in 13,543 adult patients who participated in multiple-dose, clinical trials in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, another indication, Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type, Parkinson’s disease, and alcoholism, and who had approximately 7619 patient-years of exposure to oral aripiprazole and 749 patients with exposure to aripiprazole injection. A total of 3390 patients were treated with oral aripiprazole for at least 180 days and 1933 patients treated with oral aripiprazole had at least 1 year of exposure.

Aripiprazole has been evaluated for safety in 1,686 patients (6 to 18 years) who participated in multiple-dose, clinical trials in schizophrenia, bipolar mania, or other indications and who had approximately 1,342 patient-years of exposure to oral aripiprazole. A total of 959 pediatric patients were treated with oral aripiprazole for at least 180 days and 556 pediatric patients treated with oral aripiprazole had at least 1 year of exposure.

The conditions and duration of treatment with aripiprazole included (in overlapping categories) double-blind, comparative and noncomparative open-label studies, inpatient and outpatient studies, fixed- and flexible-dose studies, and short- and longer-term exposure.

Additional pediatric use information is approved for Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s ABILIFY® (aripiprazole) product. However, due to Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information.

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Adult Patients with Schizophrenia

The following findings are based on a pool of five placebo-controlled trials (four 4-week and one 6-week) in which oral aripiprazole was administered in doses ranging from 2 mg/day to 30 mg/day.

Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions

The only commonly observed adverse reaction associated with the use of aripiprazole in patients with schizophrenia (incidence of 5% or greater and aripiprazole incidence at least twice that for placebo) was akathisia (aripiprazole 8%; placebo 4%).

Adult Patients with Bipolar Mania Monotherapy

The following findings are based on a pool of 3-week, placebo-controlled, bipolar mania trials in which oral aripiprazole was administered at doses of 15 mg/day or 30 mg/day.

Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions

Commonly observed adverse reactions associated with the use of aripiprazole in patients with bipolar mania (incidence of 5% or greater and aripiprazole incidence at least twice that for placebo) are shown in Table 9.

Table 9: Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials of Adult Patients with Bipolar Mania Treated with Oral Aripiprazole Monotherapy

Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction

Aripiprazole

Placebo

Preferred Term

(n = 917)

(n = 753)

Akathisia

13

4

Sedation

8

3

Restlessness

6

3

Tremor

6

3

Extrapyramidal Disorder

5

2

Less Common Adverse Reactions in Adults

Table 10 enumerates the pooled incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of adverse reactions that occurred during acute therapy (up to 6 weeks in schizophrenia and up to 3 weeks in bipolar mania), including only those reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with aripiprazole (doses ≥2 mg/day) and for which the incidence in patients treated with aripiprazole was greater than the incidence in patients treated with placebo in the combined dataset.

Table 10: Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials in Adult Patients Treated with Oral Aripiprazole

*
Adverse reactions reported by at least 2% of patients treated with oral aripiprazole, except adverse reactions which had an incidence equal to or less than placebo.

Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction *

System Organ Class

Aripiprazole

Placebo

Preferred Term

(n = 1843)

(n = 1166)

Eye Disorders

Blurred Vision

3

1

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Nausea

15

11

Constipation

11

7

Vomiting

11

6

Dyspepsia

9

7

Dry Mouth

5

4

Toothache

4

3

Abdominal Discomfort

3

2

Stomach Discomfort

3

2

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions

Fatigue

6

4

Pain

3

2

Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders

Musculoskeletal Stiffness

4

3

Pain in Extremity

4

2

Myalgia

2

1

Muscle Spasms

2

1

Nervous System Disorders

Headache

27

23

Dizziness

10

7

Akathisia

10

4

Sedation

7

4

Extrapyramidal Disorder

5

3

Tremor

5

3

Somnolence

5

3

Psychiatric Disorders

Agitation

19

17

Insomnia

18

13

Anxiety

17

13

Restlessness

5

3

Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders

Pharyngolaryngeal Pain

3

2

Cough

3

2

An examination of population subgroups did not reveal any clear evidence of differential adverse reaction incidence on the basis of age, gender, or race.

Adult Patients with Adjunctive Therapy with Bipolar Mania

The following findings are based on a placebo-controlled trial of adult patients with bipolar disorder in which aripiprazole was administered at doses of 15 mg/day or 30 mg/day as adjunctive therapy with lithium or valproate.

Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment

In a study of patients who were already tolerating either lithium or valproate as monotherapy, discontinuation rates due to adverse reactions were 12% for patients treated with adjunctive aripiprazole compared to 6% for patients treated with adjunctive placebo. The most common adverse drug reactions associated with discontinuation in the adjunctive aripiprazole-treated compared to placebo-treated patients were akathisia (5% and 1%, respectively) and tremor (2% and 1%, respectively).

Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions

The commonly observed adverse reactions associated with adjunctive aripiprazole and lithium or valproate in patients with bipolar mania (incidence of 5% or greater and incidence at least twice that for adjunctive placebo) were: akathisia, insomnia, and extrapyramidal disorder.

Less Common Adverse Reactions in Adult Patients with Adjunctive Therapy in Bipolar Mania

Table 11 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of adverse reactions that occurred during acute treatment (up to 6 weeks), including only those reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with adjunctive aripiprazole (doses of 15 mg/day or 30 mg/day) and lithium or valproate and for which the incidence in patients treated with this combination was greater than the incidence in patients treated with placebo plus lithium or valproate.

Table 11: Adverse Reactions in a Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Adjunctive Therapy in Patients with Bipolar Disorder

*
Adverse reactions reported by at least 2% of patients treated with oral aripiprazole, except adverse reactions which had an incidence equal to or less than placebo.
Lithium or Valproate

System Organ ClassPreferred Term

Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction *

Aripiprazole + Li or Val

Placebo + Li or Val

(n = 253)

(n = 130)

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Nausea

8

5

Vomiting

4

0

Salivary Hypersecretion

4

2

Dry Mouth

2

1

Infections and Infestations

Nasopharyngitis

3

2

Investigations

Weight Increased

2

1

Nervous System Disorders

Akathisia

19

5

Tremor

9

6

Extrapyramidal Disorder

5

1

Dizziness

4

1

Sedation

4

2

Psychiatric Disorders

Insomnia

8

4

Anxiety

4

1

Restlessness

2

1

Pediatric Patients (13 to 17 years) with Schizophrenia

The following findings are based on one 6-week, placebo-controlled trial in which oral aripiprazole was administered in doses ranging from 2 mg/day to 30 mg/day.

Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment

The incidence of discontinuation due to adverse reactions between aripiprazole-treated and placebo-treated pediatric patients (13 to 17 years) was 5% and 2%, respectively.

Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions

Commonly observed adverse reactions associated with the use of aripiprazole in adolescent patients with schizophrenia (incidence of 5% or greater and aripiprazole incidence at least twice that for placebo) were extrapyramidal disorder, somnolence, and tremor.

Pediatric Patients (10 to 17 years) with Bipolar Mania

The following findings are based on one 4-week, placebo-controlled trial in which oral aripiprazole was administered in doses of 10 mg/day or 30 mg/day.

Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment

The incidence of discontinuation due to adverse reactions between aripiprazole-treated and placebo-treated pediatric patients (10 to 17 years) was 7% and 2%, respectively.

Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions

Commonly observed adverse reactions associated with the use of aripiprazole in pediatric patients with bipolar mania (incidence of 5% or greater and aripiprazole incidence at least twice that for placebo) are shown in Table 12.

Table 12: Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials of Pediatric Patients (10 to 17 years) with Bipolar Mania Treated with Oral Aripiprazole

Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction

Aripiprazole

Placebo

Preferred Term

(n = 197)

(n = 97)

Somnolence

23

3

Extrapyramidal Disorder

20

3

Fatigue

11

4

Nausea

11

4

Akathisia

10

2

Blurred Vision

8

0

Salivary Hypersecretion

6

0

Dizziness

5

1

Less Common Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients (6 to 18 years) with Schizophrenia, Bipolar Mania or Other Indications Table 13 enumerates the pooled incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of adverse reactions that occurred during acute therapy (up to 6 weeks in schizophrenia, up to 4 weeks in bipolar mania, up to 8 weeks in one indication, and up to 10 weeks in another indication), including only those reactions that occurred in 2% or more of pediatric patients treated with aripiprazole (doses ≥ 2 mg/day) and for which the incidence in patients treated with aripiprazole was greater than the incidence in patients treated with placebo.

Table 13: Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials of Pediatric Patients (6 to 18 years) Treated with Oral Aripiprazole

*
Adverse reactions reported by at least 2% of pediatric patients treated with oral aripiprazole, except adverse reactions which had an incidence equal to or less than placebo.

Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction *

System Organ Class

Aripiprazole

Placebo

Preferred Term

(n = 732)

(n = 370)

Eye Disorders

Blurred Vision

3

0

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Abdominal Discomfort

2

1

Vomiting

8

7

Nausea

8

4

Diarrhea

4

3

Salivary Hypersecretion

4

1

Abdominal Pain Upper

3

2

Constipation

2

2

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions

Fatigue

10

2

Pyrexia

4

1

Irritability

2

1

Asthenia

2

1

Infections and Infestations

Nasopharyngitis

6

3

Investigations

Weight Increased

3

1

Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders

Increased Appetite

7

3

Decreased Appetite

5

4

Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders

Musculoskeletal Stiffness

2

1

Muscle Rigidity

2

1

Nervous System Disorders

Somnolence

16

4

Headache

12

10

Sedation

9

2

Tremor

9

1

Extrapyramidal Disorder

6

1

Akathisia

6

4

Drooling

3

0

Lethargy

3

0

Dizziness

3

2

Dystonia

2

1

Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders

Epistaxis

2

1

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders

Rash

2

1

Dose-Related Adverse Reactions
Schizophrenia

Dose response relationships for the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events were evaluated from four trials in adult patients with schizophrenia comparing various fixed doses (2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 mg/day) of oral aripiprazole to placebo. This analysis, stratified by study, indicated that the only adverse reaction to have a possible dose response relationship, and then most prominent only with 30 mg, was somnolence [including sedation]; (incidences were placebo, 7.1%; 10 mg, 8.5%; 15 mg, 8.7%; 20 mg, 7.5%; 30 mg, 12.6%).

In the study of pediatric patients (13 to 17 years of age) with schizophrenia, three common adverse reactions appeared to have a possible dose response relationship: extrapyramidal disorder (incidences were placebo, 5.0%; 10 mg, 13.0%; 30 mg, 21.6%); somnolence (incidences were placebo, 6.0%; 10 mg, 11.0%; 30 mg, 21.6%); and tremor (incidences were placebo, 2.0%; 10 mg, 2.0%; 30 mg, 11.8%).

Bipolar Mania

In the study of pediatric patients (10 to 17 years of age) with bipolar mania, four common adverse reactions had a possible dose response relationship at 4 weeks; extrapyramidal disorder (incidences were placebo, 3.1%; 10 mg, 12.2%; 30 mg, 27.3%); somnolence (incidences were placebo, 3.1%; 10 mg, 19.4%; 30 mg, 26.3%); akathisia (incidences were placebo, 2.1%; 10 mg, 8.2%; 30 mg, 11.1%); and salivary hypersecretion (incidences were placebo, 0%; 10 mg, 3.1%; 30 mg, 8.1%).

Extrapyramidal Symptoms
Schizophrenia

In short-term, placebo-controlled trials in schizophrenia in adults, the incidence of reported EPS-related events, excluding events related to akathisia, for aripiprazole-treated patients was 13% vs. 12% for placebo; and the incidence of akathisia-related events for aripiprazole-treated patients was 8% vs. 4% for placebo. In the short-term, placebo-controlled trial of schizophrenia in pediatric patients (13 to 17 years), the incidence of reported EPS-related events, excluding events related to akathisia, for aripiprazole-treated patients was 25% vs. 7% for placebo; and the incidence of akathisia-related events for aripiprazole-treated patients was 9% vs. 6% for placebo.

Objectively collected data from those trials was collected on the Simpson Angus Rating Scale (for EPS), the Barnes Akathisia Scale (for akathisia), and the Assessments of Involuntary Movement Scales (for dyskinesias). In the adult schizophrenia trials, the objectively collected data did not show a difference between aripiprazole and placebo, with the exception of the Barnes Akathisia Scale (aripiprazole, 0.08; placebo, −0.05). In the pediatric (13 to 17 years) schizophrenia trial, the objectively collected data did not show a difference between aripiprazole and placebo, with the exception of the Simpson Angus Rating Scale (aripiprazole, 0.24; placebo, −0.29).

Similarly, in a long-term (26-week), placebo-controlled trial of schizophrenia in adults, objectively collected data on the Simpson Angus Rating Scale (for EPS), the Barnes Akathisia Scale (for akathisia), and the Assessments of Involuntary Movement Scales (for dyskinesias) did not show a difference between aripiprazole and placebo.

Bipolar Mania

In the short-term, placebo-controlled trials in bipolar mania in adults, the incidence of reported EPS-related events, excluding events related to akathisia, for monotherapy aripiprazole-treated patients was 16% vs. 8% for placebo and the incidence of akathisia-related events for monotherapy aripiprazole-treated patients was 13% vs. 4% for placebo. In the 6-week, placebo-controlled trial in bipolar mania for adjunctive therapy with lithium or valproate, the incidence of reported EPS-related events, excluding events related to akathisia for adjunctive aripiprazole-treated patients was 15% vs. 8% for adjunctive placebo and the incidence of akathisia-related events for adjunctive aripiprazole-treated patients was 19% vs. 5% for adjunctive placebo. In the short-term, placebo-controlled trial in bipolar mania in pediatric (10 to 17 years) patients, the incidence of reported EPS-related events, excluding events related to akathisia, for aripiprazole-treated patients was 26% vs. 5% for placebo and the incidence of akathisia-related events for aripiprazole-treated patients was 10% vs. 2% for placebo.

In the adult bipolar mania trials with monotherapy aripiprazole, the Simpson Angus Rating Scale and the Barnes Akathisia Scale showed a significant difference between aripiprazole and placebo (aripiprazole, 0.50; placebo, −0.01 and aripiprazole, 0.21; placebo, −0.05). Changes in the Assessments of Involuntary Movement Scales were similar for the aripiprazole and placebo groups. In the bipolar mania trials with aripiprazole as adjunctive therapy with either lithium or valproate, the Simpson Angus Rating Scale and the Barnes Akathisia Scale showed a significant difference between adjunctive aripiprazole and adjunctive placebo (aripiprazole, 0.73; placebo, 0.07 and aripiprazole, 0.30; placebo, 0.11). Changes in the Assessments of Involuntary Movement Scales were similar for adjunctive aripiprazole and adjunctive placebo. In the pediatric (10 to 17 years), short-term, bipolar mania trial, the Simpson Angus Rating Scale showed a significant difference between aripiprazole and placebo (aripiprazole, 0.90; placebo, −0.05). Changes in the Barnes Akathisia Scale and the Assessments of Involuntary Movement Scales were similar for the aripiprazole and placebo groups.

Dystonia

Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during the first few days of treatment. Dystonic symptoms include: spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, swallowing difficulty, difficulty breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue. While these symptoms can occur at low doses, they occur more frequently and with greater severity with high potency and at higher doses of first generation antipsychotic drugs. An elevated risk of acute dystonia is observed in males and younger age groups.

Additional Findings Observed in Clinical Trials
Adverse Reactions in Long-Term, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

The adverse reactions reported in a 26-week, double-blind trial comparing oral aripiprazole and placebo in patients with schizophrenia were generally consistent with those reported in the short-term, placebo-controlled trials, except for a higher incidence of tremor [8% (12/153) for aripiprazole vs. 2% (3/153) for placebo]. In this study, the majority of the cases of tremor were of mild intensity (8/12 mild and 4/12 moderate), occurred early in therapy (9/12 ≤49 days), and were of limited duration (7/12 ≤10 days). Tremor infrequently led to discontinuation (<1%) of aripiprazole. In addition, in a long-term (52-week), active-controlled study, the incidence of tremor was 5% (40/859) for aripiprazole. A similar profile was observed in a long-term monotherapy study and a long-term adjunctive study with lithium and valproate in bipolar disorder.

Other Adverse Reactions Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of Aripiprazole

The following listing does not include reactions: 1) already listed in previous tables or elsewhere in labeling, 2) for which a drug cause was remote, 3) which were so general as to be uninformative, 4) which were not considered to have significant clinical implications, or 5) which occurred at a rate equal to or less than placebo.

Reactions are categorized by body system according to the following definitions: frequent adverse reactions are those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse reactions are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare reactions are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients:

Adults — Oral Administration

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders:

rare – thrombocytopenia

Cardiac Disorders:

infrequent – bradycardia, palpitations, rare – atrial flutter, cardio-respiratory arrest, atrioventricular block, atrial fibrillation, angina pectoris, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, cardiopulmonary failure

Eye Disorders:

infrequent – photophobia; rare – diplopia

Gastrointestinal Disorders:

infrequent – gastroesophageal reflux disease

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions:

frequent – asthenia; infrequent – peripheral edema, chest pain; rare – face edema

Hepatobiliary Disorders:

rare – hepatitis, jaundice

Immune System Disorders:

rare – hypersensitivity

Injury, Poisoning, and Procedural Complications:

infrequent – fall; rare – heat stroke

Investigations:

frequent – weight decreased, infrequent – hepatic enzyme increased, blood glucose increased, blood lactate dehydrogenase increased, gamma glutamyl transferase increased; rare – blood prolactin increased, blood urea increased, blood creatinine increased, blood bilirubin increased, electrocardiogram QT prolonged, glycosylated hemoglobin increased

Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders:

frequent – anorexia; rare – hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia

Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders:

infrequent – muscular weakness, muscle tightness; rare – rhabdomyolysis, mobility decreased

Nervous System Disorders:

infrequent – parkinsonism, memory impairment, cogwheel rigidity, hypokinesia, bradykinesia; rare – akinesia, myoclonus, coordination abnormal, speech disorder, Grand Mal convulsion; <1/10,000 patients – choreoathetosis

Psychiatric Disorders:

infrequent – aggression, loss of libido, delirium; rare – libido increased, anorgasmia, tic, homicidal ideation, catatonia, sleep walking

Renal and Urinary Disorders:

rare – urinary retention, nocturia

Reproductive System and Breast Disorders:

infrequent – erectile dysfunction; rare – gynaecomastia, menstruation irregular, amenorrhea, breast pain, priapism

Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders:

infrequent – nasal congestion, dyspnea

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders:

infrequent — rash, hyperhidrosis, pruritus, photosensitivity reaction, alopecia; rare – urticaria

Vascular Disorders:

infrequent – hypotension, hypertension

Pediatric Patients — Oral Administration

Most adverse events observed in the pooled database of 1,686 pediatric patients, aged 6 to 18 years, were also observed in the adult population. Additional adverse reactions observed in the pediatric population are listed below.

Eye Disorders:

infrequent – oculogyric crisis

Gastrointestinal Disorders:

infrequent – tongue dry, tongue spasm

Investigations:

frequent – blood insulin increased

Nervous System Disorders:

infrequent – sleep talking

Renal and Urinary Disorders:

frequent – enuresis

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders:

infrequent – hirsutism

Additional pediatric use information is approved for Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s ABILIFY® (aripiprazole) product. However, due to Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information.

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