Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium: Package Insert and Label Information

AMOXICILLIN AND CLAVULANATE POTASSIUM- clavulanate potassium and amoxicillin tablet, film coated
Advanced Rx Pharmacy of Tennessee, LLC

1. Indications and Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets USP, and other antibacterial drugs, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets USP is a combination penicillin-class antibacterial and beta-lactamase inhibitor indicated in the treatment of infections due to susceptible isolates of the designated bacteria in the conditions listed below*:

1.1 Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

– caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.

1.2 Acute Bacterial Otitis Media

– caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis.

1.3 Sinusitis

– caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis.

1.4 Skin and Skin Structure Infections

– caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella species.

1.5 Urinary Tract Infections

– caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of E. coli, Klebsiella species, and Enterobacter species.

1.6 Limitations of Use

– When susceptibility test results show susceptibility to amoxicillin, USP, indicating no beta-lactamase production, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets USP should not be used.

2. Dosage and Administration

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium may be taken without regard to meals; however, absorption of clavulanate potassium is enhanced when amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is administered at the start of a meal. To minimize the potential for gastrointestinal intolerance, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium should be taken at the start of a meal.

2.1 Adults

The usual adult dose is one 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet every 12 hours or one 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet every 8 hours. For more severe infections and infections of the respiratory tract, the dose should be one 875 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet every 12 hours or one 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet every 8 hours. Adults who have difficulty swallowing may be given the 125 mg/31.25 mg per 5 mL or 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL suspension in place of the 500 mg/125 mg tablet. The 200 mg/28.5 mg per 5 mL suspension or the 400 mg/57 mg per 5 mL suspension may be used in place of the 875 mg/125 mg tablet.

Two 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets should not be substituted for one 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet. Since both the 250 mg/125 mg and 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (125 mg, as the potassium salt), two 250 mg/125 mg tablets are not equivalent to one 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet.

The 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet and the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet should not be substituted for each other, as they are not interchangeable. The 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet and the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet do not contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (as the potassium salt). The 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet contains 125 mg of clavulanic acid, whereas the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet contains 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid.

2.2 Pediatric Patients

Based on the amoxicillin component, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium should be dosed as follows:

Neonates and Infants Aged <12 weeks (<3 months): The recommended dose of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet is 30 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours, based on the amoxicillin component. Experience with the 200 mg/5 mL formulation in this age group is limited, and thus, use of the 125 mg/5 mL oral suspension is recommended.

Patients Aged 12 weeks (3 months) and Older: See dosing regimens provided in Table 1. The every 12 hour regimen is recommended as it is associated with significantly less diarrhea [see Clinical Studies ( 14.2)] .

Table 1: Dosing in Patients Aged 12 weeks (3 months) and Older

INFECTION DOSING REGIMEN
Every 12 hours Every 12 hours
200 mg/5 mL or 400 mg/5 mL oral suspension a 125 mg/5 mL or 250 mg/5 mL oral suspension a
Otitis media b, sinusitis, lower respiratory tract infections, and more severe infections 45 mg/kg/day every 12 hours 40 mg/kg/day every 8 hours
Less severe infections 25 mg/kg/day every 12 hours 20 mg/kg/day every 8 hours

a Each strength of suspension of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is available as a chewable tablet for use by older children.

b Duration of therapy studied and recommended for acute otitis media is 10 days.

Patients Weighing 40 kg or More: Pediatric patients weighing 40 kg or more should be dosed according to adult recommendations.

The 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets should not be used until the child weighs at least 40 kg, due to the different amoxicillin to clavulanic acid ratios in the 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets (250/125) versus the 250 mg/62.5 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets (Chewable).

2.3 Patients with Renal Impairment

Patients with impaired renal function do not generally require a reduction in dose unless the impairment is severe. Renal impairment patients with a glomerular filtration rate of <30 mL/min should not receive the 875 mg/125 mg dose. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 10 to 30 mL/min should receive 500 mg/125 mg or 250 mg/125 mg every 12 hours, depending on the severity of the infection. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 10 mL/min should receive 500 mg/125 mg or 250 mg/125 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection.
Hemodialysis patients should receive 500 mg/125 mg or 250 mg/125 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection. They should receive an additional dose both during and at the end of dialysis.

3. Dosage Forms and Strengths

250 mg/125 mg Tablets: White to off-white colored, capsule shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets, debossed with “I 05” on one side and plain on the other side. Each tablet contains 250 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate and 125 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt.
500 mg/125 mg Tablets: White to off-white colored, capsule shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets debossed with “I 06” on one side and plain on the other side. Each tablet contains 500 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate and 125 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt.
875 mg/125 mg Tablets: white to off-white colored, capsule shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets debossed with “I 07” on one side score line on the other side. Each tablet contains 875 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate and 125 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt.

The 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet and the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet should NOT be substituted for each other, as they are not interchangeable and the 250 mg/125 mg tablet should not be used in children weighing less than 40 kg. The 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet and the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet do not contain the same amount of clavulanic acid. The 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet contains 125 mg of clavulanic acid whereas the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet contains 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid.

Two 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets should NOT be substituted for one 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet. Since both the 250 mg/125 mg and 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (125 mg, as the potassium salt), two 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets are not equivalent to one 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet.

4. Contraindications

4.1 Serious Hypersensitivity Reactions

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is contraindicated in patients with a history of serious hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to amoxicillin, clavulanate or to other beta-lactam antibacterial drugs (e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins).

4.2 Cholestatic Jaundice/Hepatic Dysfunction

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium.

5. Warnings and Precautions

5.1 Hypersensitivity Reactions

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam antibacterials, including amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before initiating therapy with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, careful inquiry should be made regarding previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

5.2 Hepatic Dysfunction

Hepatic dysfunction, including hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice has been associated with the use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Hepatic toxicity is usually reversible; however, deaths have been reported. Hepatic function should be monitored at regular intervals in patients with hepatic impairment.

5.3 Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea (CDAD)

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin-producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over 2 months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued.
Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

5.4 Skin Rash in Patients with Mononucleosis

A high percentage of patients with mononucleosis who receive amoxicillin develop an erythematous skin rash. Thus, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets should not be administered to patients with mononucleosis.

5.5 Potential for Microbial Overgrowth

The possibility of superinfections with fungal or bacterial pathogens should be considered during therapy. If superinfection occurs, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

5.7 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient, and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

6. Adverse Reactions

The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:

  • Anaphylactic reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1)]
  • Hepatic Dysfunction [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.2)]
  • CDAD [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.3)]

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The most frequently reported adverse reactions were diarrhea/loose stools (9%), nausea (3%), skin rashes and urticaria (3%), vomiting (1%) and vaginitis (1%). Less than 3% of patients discontinued therapy because of drug-related adverse reactions. The overall incidence of adverse reactions, and in particular diarrhea, increased with the higher recommended dose. Other less frequently reported adverse reactions (<1%) include: Abdominal discomfort, flatulence, and headache.

In pediatric patients (aged 2 months to 12 years), 1 US/Canadian clinical trial was conducted which compared 45/6.4 mg/kg/day (divided every 12 hours) of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for 10 days versus 40/10 mg/kg/day (divided every 8 hours) of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for 10 days in the treatment of acute otitis media. A total of 575 patients were enrolled, and only the suspension formulations were used in this trial. Overall, the adverse reactions seen were comparable to that noted above; however, there were differences in the rates of diarrhea, skin rashes/urticaria, and diaper area rashes. [See CLINICAL STUDIES (14.2)]

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

In addition to adverse reactions reported from clinical trials, the following have been identified during postmarketing use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium.
Gastrointestinal: Indigestion, gastritis, stomatitis, glossitis, black “hairy” tongue, mucocutaneous candidiasis, enterocolitis, and hemorrhagic/pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.3)]
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Pruritus, angioedema, serum sickness–like reactions (urticaria or skin rash accompanied by arthritis, arthralgia, myalgia, and frequently fever), erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, hypersensitivity vasculitis, and cases of exfoliative dermatitis (including toxic epidermal necrolysis) have been reported. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1)]
Liver: Hepatic dysfunction, including hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice, increases in serum transaminases (AST and/or ALT), serum bilirubin, and/or alkaline phosphatase, has been reported with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. It has been reported more commonly in the elderly, in males, or in patients on prolonged treatment. The histologic findings on liver biopsy have consisted of predominantly cholestatic, hepatocellular, or mixed cholestatic-hepatocellular changes. The onset of signs/symptoms of hepatic dysfunction may occur during or several weeks after therapy has been discontinued. The hepatic dysfunction, which may be severe, is usually reversible. Deaths have been reported. [see CONTRAINDICATIONS (4.2), WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.2)]
Renal: Interstitial nephritis, hematuria, and crystalluria have been reported. [see OVERDOSAGE (10)]
Hemic and Lymphatic Systems: Anemia, including hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis have been reported. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena. Thrombocytosis was noted in less than 1% of the patients treated with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. There have been reports of increased prothrombin time in patients receiving amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium and anticoagulant therapy concomitantly. [see DRUG INTERACTIONS (7.2)]
Central Nervous System: Agitation, anxiety, behavioral changes, confusion, convulsions, dizziness, insomnia, and reversible hyperactivity have been reported.
Miscellaneous: Tooth discoloration (brown, yellow, or gray staining) has been reported. Most reports occurred in pediatric patients. Discoloration was reduced or eliminated with brushing or dental cleaning in most cases.

7. Drug Interactions

7.1 Probenecid

Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of amoxicillin but does not delay renal excretion of clavulanic acid. Concurrent use with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium may result in increased and prolonged blood concentrations of amoxicillin. Coadministration of probenecid is not recommended.

7.2 Oral Anticoagulants

Abnormal prolongation of prothrombin time (increased international normalized ratio [INR]) has been reported in patients receiving amoxicillin and oral anticoagulants. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concurrently with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation.

7.3 Allopurinol

The concurrent administration of allopurinol and amoxicillin increases the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving amoxicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of amoxicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients.

7.4 Oral Contraceptives

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium may affect intestinal flora, leading to lower estrogen reabsorption and reduced efficacy of combined oral estrogen/progesterone contraceptives.

7.5 Effects on Laboratory Tests

High urine concentrations of amoxicillin may result in false-positive reactions when testing for the presence of glucose in urine using CLINITEST ®, Benedict’s Solution, or Fehling’s Solution. Since this effect may also occur with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, it is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions be used.
Following administration of amoxicillin to pregnant women, a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugated estriol, estriol-glucuronide, conjugated estrone, and estradiol has been noted.

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