AMOXICILLIN — amoxicillin capsule
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of amoxicillin capsules, USP and other antibacterial drugs, amoxicillin capsules, USP should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. Amoxicillin capsules, USP are indicated in the treatment of infections due to susceptible (ONLY ⛚-lactamasenegative) isolates of the designated bacteria in the conditions listed below:
Due to Streptococcus species (⛙- and ⛚-hemolytic isolates only), Streptococcus pneumoniae , Staphylococcus spp., or Haemophilus influenzae.
Due to Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis , or Enterococcus faecalis.
Due to Streptococcus spp. (⛙- and ⛚-hemolytic isolates only), Staphylococcus spp., or E. coli.
Due to Streptococcus spp. (⛙- and ⛚-hemolytic isolates only), S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp., or H. influenzae.
Due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Because of high rates of amoxicillin resistance, amoxicillin capsules, USP are not recommended for empiric treatment of gonorrhea. Amoxicillin capsules, USP use should be limited to situations where N. gonorrhoeae isolates are known to be susceptible to amoxicillin.
Amoxicillin capsules, USP, in combination with clarithromycin plus lansoprazole as triple therapy, are indicated for the treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or 1-year history of a duodenal ulcer) to eradicate H. pylori. Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence.
Amoxicillin capsules, USP, in combination with lansoprazole delayed-release capsules as dual therapy, are indicated for the treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or 1-year history of a duodenal ulcer) who are either allergic or intolerant to clarithromycin or in whom resistance to clarithromycin is known or suspected. (See the clarithromycin package insert, MICROBIOLOGY.) Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence.
Except for gonorrhea, treatment should be continued for a minimum of 48 to 72 hours beyond the time that the patient becomes asymptomatic or evidence of bacterial eradication has been obtained. It is recommended that there be at least 10 days treatment for any infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes to prevent the occurrence of acute rheumatic fever. In some infections, therapy may be required for several weeks. It may be necessary to continue clinical and/or bacteriological follow-up for several months after cessation of therapy.
|Infection||Severitya||Usual Adult Dose||Usual Dose for Children > 3 Monthsb|
|a Dosing for infections caused by bacteria that are intermediate in their susceptibility to amoxicillin should follow the recommendations for severe infections. b The childrens dosage is intended for individuals whose weight is less than 40 kg. Children weighing 40 kg or more should be dosed according to the adult recommendations.|
|Ear/Nose/Throat Skin/Skin Structure Genitourinary Tract||Mild/Moderate||500 mg every 12 hours or 250 mg every 8 hours||25 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours or 20 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours|
|Severe||875 mg every 12 hours or 500 mg every 8 hours||45 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours or 40 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours|
|Lower Respiratory Tract||Mild/Moderate or Severe||875 mg every 12 hours or 500 mg every 8 hours||45 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours or 40 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours|
|Gonorrhea Acute, uncomplicated ano -genital and urethral infections in males and females||3 grams as single oral dose||Prepubertal children: 50 mg/kg amoxicillin capsules, combined with 25 mg/kg probenecid as a single dose. Note: Since probenecid is contraindicated in children under 2 years, do not use this regimen in children under 2 years of age.|
Treatment should be continued for a minimum of 48 to 72 hours beyond the time that the patient becomes asymptomatic or evidence of bacterial eradication has been obtained. It is recommended that there be at least 10 days treatment for any infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes to prevent the occurrence of acute rheumatic fever. Due to incompletely developed renal function affecting elimination of amoxicillin in this age group, the recommended upper dose of amoxicillin capsules is 30 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours. There are currently no dosing recommendations for pediatric patients with impaired renal function.
Triple Therapy: The recommended adult oral dose is 1 gram amoxicillin, 500 mg clarithromycin, and 30 mg lansoprazole, all given twice daily (every 12 hours) for 14 days.
Dual Therapy: The recommended adult oral dose is 1 gram amoxicillin and 30 mg lansoprazole, each given three times daily (every 8 hours) for 14 days. Please refer to clarithromycin and lansoprazole full prescribing information.
- Patients with impaired renal function do not generally require a reduction in dose unless the impairment is severe.
- Severely impaired patients with a glomerular filtration rate of < 30 mL/min should not receive a 875 mg dose.
- Patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 10 to 30 mL/min should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 12 hours, depending on the severity of the infection.
- Patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 10 mL/min should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection.
- Hemodialysis patients should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection. They should receive an additional dose both during and at the end of dialysis.
250 mg Capsule are blue/pink size 1 hard gelatin capsule filled with white to off white granular powder and imprinted with A44 on pink body with black ink.
500 mg Capsule are
blue/pink size 0EL hard gelatin capsule filled with white to off white granular powder and imprinted with A45 on pink body with black ink.
Amoxicillin capsules are contraindicated in patients who have experienced a serious hypersensitivity reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to amoxicillin capsules or to other ⛚-lactam antibiotics (e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins).
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy including amoxicillin. Although anaphylaxis is more frequent following parenteral therapy, it has occurred in patients on oral penicillins. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. There have been reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity who have experienced severe reactions when treated with cephalosporins. Before initiating therapy with amoxicillin, careful inquiry should be made regarding previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including amoxicillin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile. C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin-producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over 2 months after the administration of antibacterial agents.If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
The possibility of superinfections with fungal or bacterial pathogens should be considered during therapy. If superinfections occur, amoxicillin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted. Prescribing amoxicillin either in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient, and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
A high percentage of patients with mononucleosis who receive amoxicillin develop an erythematous skin rash. Thus amoxicillin should not be administered to patients with mononucleosis.
The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Anaphylactic reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- CDAD [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The most common adverse reactions (> 1%) observed in clinical trials of amoxicillin capsules, tablets or oral suspension were diarrhea, rash, vomiting, and nausea.
The most frequently reported adverse events for patients who received triple therapy (amoxicillin/clarithromycin/lansoprazole) were diarrhea (7%), headache (6%), and taste perversion (5%).
The most frequently reported adverse events for patients who received double therapy amoxicillin/lansoprazole were diarrhea (8%) and headache (7%). For more information on adverse reactions with clarithromycin or lansoprazole, refer to the Adverse Reactions section of their package inserts.
In addition to adverse events reported from clinical trials, the following events have been identified during postmarketing use of penicillins. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to amoxicillin.
- Infections and Infestations: Mucocutaneous candidiasis.
- Gastrointestinal: Black hairy tongue, and hemorrhagic/pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
- Hypersensitivity Reactions: Anaphylaxis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Serum sicknesslike reactions, erythematous maculopapular rashes, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, hypersensitivity vasculitis, and urticaria have been reported.
- Liver: A moderate rise in AST and/or ALT has been noted, but the significance of this finding is unknown. Hepatic dysfunction including cholestatic jaundice, hepatic cholestasis and acute cytolytic hepatitis have been reported.
- Renal: Crystalluria has been reported [see Overdosage (10)].
- Hemic and Lymphatic Systems: Anemia, including hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis have been reported. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena.
- Central Nervous System: Reversible hyperactivity, agitation, anxiety, insomnia, confusion, convulsions, behavioral changes, and/or dizziness have been reported.
- Miscellaneous: Tooth discoloration (brown, yellow, or gray staining) has been reported. Most reports occurred in pediatric patients. Discoloration was reduced or eliminated with brushing or dental cleaning in most cases.
Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of amoxicillin. Concurrent use of amoxicillin and probenecid may result in increased and prolonged blood levels of amoxicillin.
Abnormal prolongation of prothrombin time (increased international normalized ratio [INR]) has been reported in patients receiving amoxicillin and oral anticoagulants. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concurrently. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation.
The concurrent administration of allopurinol and amoxicillin increases the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving amoxicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of amoxicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients.
Amoxicillin may affect the gut flora, leading to lower estrogen reabsorption and reduced efficacy of combined oral estrogen/progesterone contraceptives.
Chloramphenicol, macrolides, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines may interfere with the bactericidal effects of penicillin. This has been demonstrated in vitro ; however, the clinical significance of this interaction is not well documented.
High urine concentrations of ampicillin may result in false-positive reactions when testing for the presence of glucose in urine using CLINITEST® , Benedicts Solution, or Fehlings Solution. Since this effect may also occur with amoxicillin, it is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions (such as CLINISTIX®) be used. Following administration of ampicillin or amoxicillin to pregnant women, a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugated estriol, estriol-glucuronide, conjugated estrone, and estradiol has been noted.
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