Aloxi: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 3 of 4)

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

In a 104-week carcinogenicity study in CD-1 mice, animals were treated with oral doses of palonosetron at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day. Treatment with palonosetron was not tumorigenic. The highest tested dose produced a systemic exposure to palonosetron (Plasma AUC) of about 150 to 289 times the human exposure (AUC= 29.8 h·mcg/L) at the recommended intravenous dose of 0.25 mg. In a 104-week carcinogenicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats, male and female rats were treated with oral doses of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day and 15, 45, and 90 mg/kg/day, respectively. The highest doses produced a systemic exposure to palonosetron (Plasma AUC) of 137 and 308 times the human exposure at the recommended dose. Treatment with palonosetron produced increased incidences of adrenal benign pheochromocytoma and combined benign and malignant pheochromocytoma, increased incidences of pancreatic Islet cell adenoma and combined adenoma and carcinoma and pituitary adenoma in male rats. In female rats, it produced hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma and increased the incidences of thyroid C-cell adenoma and combined adenoma and carcinoma.

Palonosetron was not genotoxic in the Ames test, the Chinese hamster ovarian cell (CHO/HGPRT) forward mutation test, the ex vivo hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) test, or the mouse micronucleus test. It was, however, positive for clastogenic effects in the Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cell chromosomal aberration test.

Palonosetron at oral doses up to 60 mg/kg/day (about 1894 times the recommended human intravenous dose based on body surface area) was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance of male and female rats.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Adults

Efficacy of single-dose palonosetron injection in preventing acute and delayed nausea and vomiting induced by both moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy was studied in three Phase 3 trials and one Phase 2 trial. In these double-blind studies, complete response rates (no emetic episodes and no rescue medication) and other efficacy parameters were assessed through at least 120 hours after administration of chemotherapy. The safety and efficacy of palonosetron in repeated courses of chemotherapy was also assessed.

Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy
Two Phase 3, double-blind trials involving 1132 patients compared single-dose I.V. ALOXI with either single-dose I.V. ondansetron (study 1) or dolasetron (study 2) given 30 minutes prior to moderately emetogenic chemotherapy including carboplatin, cisplatin ≤ 50 mg/m², cyclophosphamide < 1500 mg/m², doxorubicin > 25 mg/m², epirubicin, irinotecan, and methotrexate > 250 mg/m². Concomitant corticosteroids were not administered prophylactically in study 1 and were only used by 4-6% of patients in study 2. The majority of patients in these studies were women (77%), White (65%) and naïve to previous chemotherapy (54%). The mean age was 55 years.

Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy
A Phase 2, double-blind, dose-ranging study evaluated the efficacy of single-dose I.V. palonosetron from 0.3 to 90 mcg/kg (equivalent to < 0.1 mg to 6 mg fixed dose) in 161 chemotherapy-naïve adult cancer patients receiving highly-emetogenic chemotherapy (either cisplatin ≥ 70 mg/m² or cyclophosphamide > 1100 mg/m²). Concomitant corticosteroids were not administered prophylactically. Analysis of data from this trial indicates that 0.25 mg is the lowest effective dose in preventing acute nausea and vomiting induced by highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

A Phase 3, double-blind trial involving 667 patients compared single-dose I.V. ALOXI with single-dose I.V. ondansetron (study 3) given 30 minutes prior to highly emetogenic chemotherapy including cisplatin ≥ 60 mg/m², cyclophosphamide > 1500 mg/m², and dacarbazine. Corticosteroids were co-administered prophylactically before chemotherapy in 67% of patients. Of the 667 patients, 51% were women, 60% White, and 59% naïve to previous chemotherapy. The mean age was 52 years.

Efficacy ResultsThe antiemetic activity of ALOXI was evaluated during the acute phase (0-24 hours) [Table 4], delayed phase (24-120 hours) [Table 5], and overall phase (0-120 hours) [Table 6] post-chemotherapy in Phase 3 trials.

Table 4: Prevention of Acute Nausea and Vomiting (0-24 hours): Complete Response Rates
a Intent-to-treat cohortb 2-sided Fisher’s exact test. Significance level at α=0.025.c These studies were designed to show non-inferiority. A lower bound greater than -15% demonstrates non-inferiority between ALOXI and comparator.
Chemotherapy Study Treatment Group Na % with Complete Response p -valueb 97.5% Confidence Interval ALOXI minus Comparatorc aloxi-02
Moderately Emetogenic 1 ALOXI 0.25 mg 189 81 0.009
Ondansetron 32 mg I.V. 185 69
2 ALOXI 0.25 mg 189 63 NS
Dolasetron 100 mg I.V. 191 53
Highly Emetogenic 3 ALOXI 0.25 mg 223 59 NS
Ondasetron 32 mg I.V. 221 57

These studies show that ALOXI was effective in the prevention of acute nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of moderately and highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy. In study 3, efficacy was greater when prophylactic corticosteroids were administered concomitantly. Clinical superiority over other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists has not been adequately demonstrated in the acute phase.

Table 5: Prevention of Delayed Nausea and Vomiting (24-120 hours): Complete Response Rates
a Intent-to-treat cohortb 2-sided Fisher’s exact test. Significance level at α=0.025.c These studies were designed to show non-inferiority. A lower bound greater than -15% demonstrates non-inferiority between ALOXI and comparator.
Chemotherapy Study Treatment Group Na % with Complete Response p -valueb 97.5% Confidence Interval ALOXI minus Comparatorc aloxi-03
Moderately Emetogenic 1 ALOXI 0.25 mg 189 74 <0.001
Ondansetron 32 mg I.V. 185 55
2 ALOXI 0.25 mg 189 54 0.004
Dolasetron 100 mg I.V. 191 39

These studies show that ALOXI was effective in the prevention of delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.

Table 6: Prevention of Overall Nausea and Vomiting (0-120 hours): Complete Response Rates
a Intent-to-treat cohortb 2-sided Fisher’s exact test. Significance level at α=0.025.c These studies were designed to show non-inferiority. A lower bound greater than -15% demonstrates non-inferiority between ALOXI and comparator.
Chemotherapy Study Treatment Group Na % with Complete Response p -valueb 97.5% Confidence Interval ALOXI minus Comparatorc aloxi-04
Moderately Emetogenic 1 ALOXI 0.25 mg 189 69 <0.001
Ondansetron 32 mg I.V. 185 50
2 ALOXI 0.25 mg 189 46 0.021
Dolasetron 100 mg I.V. 191 34

These studies show that ALOXI was effective in the prevention of nausea and vomiting throughout the 120 hours (5 days) following initial and repeat courses of moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy.

14.2 Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Pediatrics

One double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial was conducted in pediatric cancer patients. The total population (N = 327) had a mean age of 8.3 years (range 2 months to 16.9 years) and were 53% male; and 96% white. Patients were randomized and received a 20 mcg/kg (maximum 1.5 mg) intravenous infusion of ALOXI 30 minutes prior to the start of emetogenic chemotherapy (followed by placebo infusions 4 and 8 hours after the dose of palonosetron) or 0.15 mg/kg of intravenous ondansetron 30 minutes prior to the start of emetogenic chemotherapy (followed by ondansetron 0.15 mg/kg infusions 4 and 8 hours after the first dose of ondansetron, with a maximum total dose of 32 mg). Emetogenic chemotherapies administered included doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide (<1500 mg/m2), ifosfamide, cisplatin, dactinomycin, carboplatin, and daunorubicin. Adjuvant corticosteroids, including dexamethasone, were administered with chemotherapy in 55% of patients.

Complete Response in the acute phase of the first cycle of chemotherapy was defined as no vomiting, no retching, and no rescue medication in the first 24 hours after starting chemotherapy. Efficacy was based on demonstrating non-inferiority of intravenous palonosetron compared to intravenous ondansetron. Non-inferiority criteria were met if the lower bound of the 97.5% confidence interval for the difference in Complete Response rates of intravenous palonosetron minus intravenous ondansetron was larger than -15%. The non-inferiority margin was 15%.

Efficacy ResultsAs shown in Table 7, intravenous ALOXI 20 mcg/kg (maximum 1.5 mg) demonstrated non-inferiority to the active comparator during the 0 to 24 hour time interval.

Table 7: Prevention of Acute Nausea and Vomiting (0-24 hours): Complete Response Rates
I.V. ALOXI20 mcg/kg (N=165) I.V. Ondansetron 0.15 mg/kg x 3 (N=162) Difference [97.5% Confidence Interval]*: I.V. ALOXI minus I.V. Ondansetron Comparator
59.4% 58.6% 0.36% [-11.7%, 12.4%]

* To adjust for multiplicity of treatment groups, a lower-bound of a 97.5% confidence interval was used to compare to -15%, the negative value of the non-inferiority margin.

In patients that received ALOXI at a lower dose than the recommended dose of 20 mcg/kg, non-inferiority criteria were not met.

14.3 Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

In one multicenter, randomized, stratified, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 clinical study (Study 1), palonosetron was compared with placebo for the prevention of PONV in 546 patients undergoing abdominal and gynecological surgery. All patients received general anesthesia. Study 1 was a pivotal study conducted predominantly in the US in the out-patient setting for patients undergoing elective gynecologic or abdominal laparoscopic surgery and stratified at randomization for the following risk factors: gender, non-smoking status, history of post operative nausea and vomiting and/or motion sickness.

In Study 1 patients were randomized to receive palonosetron 0.025 mg, 0.050 mg or 0.075 mg or placebo, each given intravenously immediately prior to induction of anesthesia. The antiemetic activity of palonosetron was evaluated during the 0 to 72 hour time period after surgery.

Of the 138 patients treated with 0.075 mg palonosetron in Study 1 and evaluated for efficacy, 96% were women; 66% had a history of PONV or motion sickness; 85% were non-smokers. As for race, 63% were White, 20% were Black, 15% were Hispanic, and 1% were Asian. The age of patients ranged from 21 to 74 years, with a mean age of 37.9 years. Three patients were greater than 65 years of age.

Co-primary efficacy measures were Complete Response (CR) defined as no emetic episode and no use of rescue medication in the 0-24 and in the 24-72 hours postoperatively.

Secondary efficacy endpoints included:

  • Complete Response (CR) 0-48 and 0-72 hours
  • Complete Control (CC) defined as CR and no more than mild nausea
  • Severity of nausea (none, mild, moderate, severe)

The primary hypothesis in Study 1 was that at least one of the three palonosetron doses were superior to placebo.

Results for Complete Response in Study 1 for 0.075 mg palonosetron versus placebo are described in the following table.

Table 8: Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Complete Response (CR), Study 1, Palonosetron 0.075 mg Vs Placebo
* To reach statistical significance for each co-primary endpoint, the required significance limit for the lowest p-value was p<0.017.Δ Difference (%): palonosetron 0.075mg minus placebo
Treatment n/N (%) Palonosetron Vs Placebo
Δ p-value*
Co-primary Endpoints
CR 0-24hours
Palonosetron 59/138 (42.8%) 16.8% 0.004
Placebo 35/135 (25.9%)
CR 24-72hours
Palonosetron 67/138 (48.6%) 7.8% 0.188
Placebo 55/135 (40.7%)

Palonosetron 0.075 mg reduced the severity of nausea compared to placebo. Analyses of other secondary endpoints indicate that palonosetron 0.075 mg was numerically better than placebo, however, statistical significance was not formally demonstrated.

A phase 2 randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled, dose ranging study was performed to evaluate I.V. palonosetron for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting following abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. Five I.V. palonosetron doses (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 30 µg/kg) were evaluated in a total of 381 intent-to-treat patients. The primary efficacy measure was the proportion of patients with CR in the first 24 hours after recovery from surgery. The lowest effective dose was palonosetron 1 µg/kg (approximately 0.075 mg) which had a CR rate of 44% versus 19% for placebo, p=0.004. Palonosetron 1 µg/kg also significantly reduced the severity of nausea versus placebo, p=0.009.

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