Alosetron: Package Insert and Label Information

ALOSETRON — alosetron hydrochloride tablet
Lifestar Pharma LLC

WARNING: SERIOUS GASTROINTESTINAL ADVERSE REACTIONS

Infrequent but serious gastrointestinal adverse reactions have been reported with the use of alosetron tablets. These events, including ischemic colitis and serious complications of constipation, have resulted in hospitalization, and rarely, blood transfusion, surgery, and death.

  • Alosetron tablets are indicated only for women with severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who have not responded adequately to conventional therapy [see Indications and Usage (1)].
  • Alosetron tablets should be discontinued immediately in patients who develop constipation or symptoms of ischemic colitis. Patients should immediately report constipation or symptoms of ischemic colitis to their prescriber. Alosetron tablets should not be resumed in patients who develop ischemic colitis. Patients who have constipation should immediately contact their prescriber if the constipation does not resolve after alosetron tablets is discontinued. Patients with resolved constipation should resume alosetron tablets only on the advice of their treating prescriber [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Warnings and Precautions (5.1), (5.2)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Alosetron tablets are indicated only for women with severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who have:

  • chronic IBS symptoms (generally lasting 6 months or longer),
  • had anatomic or biochemical abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract excluded, and
  • not responded adequately to conventional therapy.

Diarrhea-predominant IBS is severe if it includes diarrhea and one or more of the following:

  • frequent and severe abdominal pain/discomfort,
  • frequent bowel urgency or fecal incontinence,
  • disability or restriction of daily activities due to IBS.

Because of infrequent but serious gastrointestinal adverse reactions associated with alosetron tablets, the indication is restricted to those patients for whom the benefit-to-risk balance is most favorable.

Clinical studies have not been performed to adequately confirm the benefits of alosetron tablets in men.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Adult Patients

To lower the risk of constipation, alosetron tablets should be started at a dosage of 0.5 mg twice a day. Patients who become constipated at this dosage should stop taking alosetron tablets until the constipation resolves. They may be restarted at 0.5 mg once a day. If constipation recurs at the lower dose, Alosetron tablets should be discontinued immediately.

Patients well controlled on 0.5 mg once or twice a day may be maintained on this regimen. If after 4 weeks the dosage is well tolerated but does not adequately control IBS symptoms, then the dosage can be increased to up to 1 mg twice a day. Alosetron tablets should be discontinued in patients who have not had adequate control of IBS symptoms after 4 weeks of treatment with 1 mg twice a day.

Alosetron tablets can be taken with or without food [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Alosetron tablets should be discontinued immediately in patients who develop constipation or signs of ischemic colitis. Alosetron tablets should not be restarted in patients who develop ischemic colitis.

Clinical trial and postmarketing experience suggest that debilitated patients or patients taking additional medications that decrease gastrointestinal motility may be at greater risk of serious complications of constipation. Therefore, appropriate caution and follow-up should be exercised if alosetron tablets are prescribed for these patients.

Postmarketing experience suggests that elderly patients may be at greater risk for complications of constipation; therefore, appropriate caution and follow-up should be exercised if alosetron tablets are prescribed for these patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

2.2 Patients with Hepatic Impairment

Alosetron tablets are extensively metabolized by the liver, and increased exposure to alosetron tablets is likely to occur in patients with hepatic impairment. Increased drug exposure may increase the risk of serious adverse reactions. Alosetron tablets should be used with caution in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment and is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Contraindications (4), Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

0.5 mg and 1 mg tablets

Alosetron Tablets USP, 0.5 mg (0.562 mg alosetron HCl equivalent to 0.5 mg alosetron), are round, film-coated, white colored biconvex tablets debossed with “LS 702” on one side and plain on other side.

Alosetron Tablets USP, 1 mg (1.124 mg alosetron HCl equivalent to 1 mg alosetron), are round, film-coated, blue colored biconvex tablets debossed with “LS 701” on one side and plain on other side.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Constipation

Alosetron tablets should not be initiated in patients with constipation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

4.2 History of Severe Bowel or Hepatic Disorders

Alosetron tablets are contraindicated in patients with a history of the following:

  • chronic or severe constipation or sequelae from constipation
  • intestinal obstruction, stricture, toxic megacolon, gastrointestinal perforation and/or adhesions
  • ischemic colitis, impaired intestinal circulation, thrombophlebitis, or hypercoagulable state
  • Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis
  • diverticulitis
  • severe hepatic impairment

4.3 Concomitant Use of Fluvoxamine

Concomitant administration of alosetron tablets with fluvoxamine is contraindicated. Fluvoxamine, a known strong inhibitor of CYP1A2, has been shown to increase mean alosetron plasma concentrations (AUC) approximately 6-fold and prolong the half-life by approximately 3-fold [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Serious Complications of Constipation

Some patients have experienced serious complications of constipation without warning.

Serious complications of constipation, including obstruction, ileus, impaction, toxic megacolon, and secondary bowel ischemia, have been reported with use of alosetron tablets during clinical trials. Complications of constipation have been reported with use of 1 mg twice daily and with lower doses. A dose response relationship has not been established for serious complications of constipation. The incidence of serious complications of constipation was approximately 0.1% (1 per 1,000 patients) in women receiving either alosetron tablets or placebo. In addition, rare cases of perforation and death have been reported from postmarketing clinical practice. In some cases, complications of constipation required intestinal surgery, including colectomy. Patients who are elderly, debilitated, or taking additional medications that decrease gastrointestinal motility may be at greater risk for complications of constipation.

Alosetron tablets should be discontinued immediately in patients who develop constipation [see Boxed Warning].

5.2 Ischemic Colitis

Some patients have experienced ischemic colitis without warning.

Ischemic colitis has been reported in patients receiving alosetron tablets in clinical trials as well as during marketed use of the drug. In IBS clinical trials, the cumulative incidence of ischemic colitis in women receiving alosetron tablets was 0.2% (2 per 1,000 patients, 95% confidence interval 1 to 3) through 3 months and was 0.3% (3 per 1,000 patients, 95% confidence interval 1 to 4) through 6 months. Ischemic colitis has been reported with use of 1 mg twice daily and with lower doses. A dose-response relationship has not been established. Ischemic colitis was reported in one patient receiving placebo. The patient experience in controlled clinical trials is insufficient to estimate the incidence of ischemic colitis in patients taking alosetron tablets for longer than 6 months.

Alosetron tablets should be discontinued immediately in patients with signs of ischemic colitis such as rectal bleeding, bloody diarrhea, or new or worsening abdominal pain. Because ischemic colitis can be life-threatening, patients with signs or symptoms of ischemic colitis should be evaluated promptly and have appropriate diagnostic testing performed. Treatment with alosetron tablets should not be resumed in patients who develop ischemic colitis.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following adverse reactions are described in more detail in other sections of the label:

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Table 1 summarizes adverse reactions from 22 repeat-dose studies in patients with IBS who were treated with 1 mg of alosetron tablets twice daily for 8 to 24 weeks. The adverse reactions in Table 1 were reported in 1% or more of patients who received alosetron tablets and occurred more frequently on alosetron tablets than on placebo. A statistically significant difference was observed for constipation in patients treated with alosetron tablets compared to placebo (p<0.0001).

Table 1. Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥1% of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and More Frequently on Alosetron Tablets 1 mg Twice Daily Than Placebo
Body System Adverse Reaction Placebo (n = 2,363) Alosetron Tablets 1 mg twice daily (n = 8,328)
Gastrointestinal
Constipation 6% 29%
Abdominal discomfort and pain 4% 7%
Nausea 5% 6%
Gastrointestinal discomfort and pain 3% 5%
Abdominal distention 1% 2%
Regurgitation and reflux 2% 2%
Hemorrhoids 1% 2%

Gastrointestinal: Constipation is a frequent and dose-related side effect of treatment with alosetron tablets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. In clinical studies constipation was reported in approximately 29% of patients with IBS treated with alosetron tablets 1 mg twice daily (n = 9,316). This effect was statistically significant compared to placebo (p<0.0001). Eleven percent (11%) of patients treated with alosetron tablets 1 mg twice daily withdrew from the studies due to constipation. Although the number of patients with IBS treated with alosetron tablets 0.5 mg twice daily is relatively small (n = 243), only 11% of those patients reported constipation and 4% withdrew from clinical studies due to constipation. Among the patients treated with alosetron tablets 1 mg twice daily who reported constipation, 75% reported a single episode and most reports of constipation (70%) occurred during the first month of treatment, with the median time to first report of constipation onset of 8 days. Occurrences of constipation in clinical trials were generally mild to moderate in intensity, transient in nature, and resolved either spontaneously with continued treatment or with an interruption of treatment. However, serious complications of constipation have been reported in clinical studies and in postmarketing experience [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. In Studies 1 and 2, 9% of patients treated with alosetron tablets reported constipation and 4 consecutive days with no bowel movement [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. Following interruption of treatment, 78% of the affected patients resumed bowel movements within a 2-day period and were able to re-initiate treatment with alosetron tablets.

Hepatic: A similar incidence in elevation of ALT (>2-fold) was seen in patients receiving alosetron tablets or placebo (1.0% vs. 1.2%). A single case of hepatitis (elevated ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin) without jaundice in a patient receiving alosetron tablets was reported in a 12-week study. A causal association with alosetron tablets has not been established.

Long-Term Safety: Patient experience in controlled clinical trials is insufficient to estimate the incidence of ischemic colitis in patients taking alosetron tablets for longer than 6 months.

Women with Severe Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Table 2 summarizes the gastrointestinal adverse reactions from 1 repeat-dose study in female patients with severe diarrhea-predominant IBS who were treated for 12 weeks. The adverse reactions in Table 2 were reported in 3% or more of patients who received alosetron tablets and occurred more frequently with alosetron tablets than with placebo. Other events reported in 3% or more of patients who received alosetron tablets and occurring more frequently with alosetron tablets than with placebo included upper respiratory tract infection, viral gastroenteritis, muscle spasms, headaches, and fatigue.

Table 2. Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥3% of Women with Severe Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome and More Frequently on Alosetron Tablets Than Placebo.
Adverse Reaction Placebo (n = 176) Alosetron Tablets 0.5 mg once daily (n = 175) Alosetron Tablets 1 mg once daily (n = 172) Alosetron Tablets 1 mg twice daily (n = 176)
Constipation 5% 9% 16% 19%
Abdominal pain 3% 5% 6% 7%
Diarrhea 2% 3% 2% 2%
Hemorrhoidal hemorrhage 2% 3% 2% 2%
Flatulence 2% 2% 1% 3%
Hemorrhoids 2% 1% 1% 3%
Abdominal pain upper 1% 3% 1% 1%

Adverse reactions reported in another study of 701 women with severe diarrhea-predominant IBS were similar to those shown in Table 2.

Gastrointestinal adverse reactions reported in 3% or more of patients who received alosetron tablets and occurring more frequently with alosetron tablets than with placebo included constipation (14% and 10% of patients taking alosetron tablets 1 mg twice daily or 0.5 mg as needed, respectively, compared with 2% taking placebo), abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and flatulence. Other events reported in 3% or more of patients who received alosetron tablets and occurring more frequently with alosetron tablets than with placebo included nasopharyngitis, sinusitis, upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, viral gastroenteritis, and cough.

Constipation: Constipation was the most frequent adverse reaction among women with severe diarrhea-predominant IBS represented in Table 2. There was a dose response in the groups treated with alosetron tablets in the number of patients withdrawn due to constipation (2% on placebo, 5% on 0.5 mg once daily, 8% on 1 mg once daily, and 11% on 1 mg twice daily). Among these patients with severe diarrhea predominant IBS treated with alosetron tablets who reported constipation most (75%) reported one episode which occurred within the first 15 days of treatment and persisted for 4 to 5 days.

Other Events Observed During Clinical Evaluation of alosetron tablets: During its assessment in clinical trials, multiple and single doses of alosetron tablets were administered, resulting in 11,874 subject exposures in 86 completed clinical studies. The conditions, dosages, and duration of exposure to alosetron tablets varied between trials, and the studies included healthy male and female volunteers as well as male and female patients with IBS and other indications.

In the listing that follows, reported adverse reactions were classified using a standardized coding dictionary. Only those events that an investigator believed were possibly related to alosetron tablets, occurred in at least 2 patients, and occurred at a greater frequency during treatment with alosetron tablets than during placebo administration are presented. Serious adverse reactions occurring in at least 1 patient for whom an investigator believed there was reasonable possibility that the event was related to treatment with alosetron tablets and occurring at a greater frequency in patients treated with alosetron tablets than placebo-treated patients are also presented.

In the following listing, events are categorized by body system. Within each body system, events are presented in descending order of frequency. The following definitions are used: infrequent adverse reactions are those occurring on one or more occasion in 1/100 to 1/1,000 patients; rare adverse reactions are those occurring on one or more occasion in fewer than 1/1,000 patients.

Although the events reported occurred during treatment with alosetron tablets, they were not necessarily caused by it.

Blood and Lymphatic: Rare: Quantitative red cell or hemoglobin defects, and hemorrhage.

Cardiovascular: Infrequent: Tachyarrhythmias. Rare: Arrhythmias, increased blood pressure, and extrasystoles.

Drug Interaction, Overdose, and Trauma: Rare: Contusions and hematomas.

Ear, Nose, and Throat: Rare: Ear, nose, and throat infections; viral ear, nose, and throat infections; and laryngitis.

Endocrine and Metabolic: Rare: Disorders of calcium and phosphate metabolism, hyperglycemia, hypothalamus/pituitary hypofunction, hypoglycemia, and fluid disturbances.

Eye: Rare: Light sensitivity of eyes.

Gastrointestinal: Infrequent: Hyposalivation, dyspeptic symptoms, gastrointestinal spasms, ischemic colitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] , and gastrointestinal lesions. Rare: Abnormal tenderness, colitis, gastrointestinal signs and symptoms, proctitis, diverticulitis, positive fecal occult blood, hyperacidity, decreased gastrointestinal motility and ileus, gastrointestinal obstructions, oral symptoms, gastrointestinal intussusception, gastritis, gastroduodenitis, gastroenteritis, and ulcerative colitis.

Hepatobiliary Tract and Pancreas: Rare: Abnormal bilirubin levels and cholecystitis.

Lower Respiratory: Infrequent: Breathing disorders.

Musculoskeletal: Rare: Muscle pain; muscle stiffness, tightness and rigidity; and bone and skeletal pain.

Neurological: Infrequent: Hypnagogic effects. Rare: Memory effects, tremors, dreams, cognitive function disorders, disturbances of sense of taste, disorders of equilibrium, confusion, sedation, and hypoesthesia.

Non-Site Specific: Infrequent: Malaise and fatigue, cramps, pain, temperature regulation disturbances. Rare: Burning sensations, hot and cold sensations, cold sensations, and fungal infections.

Psychiatry: Infrequent: Anxiety. Rare: Depressive moods.

Reproduction: Rare: Sexual function disorders, female reproductive tract bleeding and hemorrhage, reproductive infections, and fungal reproductive infections.

Skin: Infrequent: Sweating and urticaria. Rare: Hair loss and alopecia; acne and folliculitis; disorders of sweat and sebum; allergic skin reaction; eczema; skin infections; dermatitis and dermatosis; and nail disorders.

Urology: Infrequent: Urinary frequency. Rare: Bladder inflammation; polyuria and diuresis; and urinary tract hemorrhage.

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