ADCIRCA: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 3 of 4)

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Over a dose range of 2.5 to 20 mg, tadalafil exposure (AUC) increases proportionally with dose in healthy subjects. In PAH patients administered between 20 and 40 mg of tadalafil, an approximately 1.5-fold greater AUC was observed indicating a less than proportional increase in exposure over the entire dose range of 2.5 to 40 mg. During tadalafil 20 and 40 mg once daily dosing, steady-state plasma concentrations were attained within 5 days, and exposure was approximately 1.3-fold higher than after a single dose.

Absorption — After single oral-dose administration, the maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax ) of tadalafil is achieved between 2 and 8 hours (median time of 4 hours). Absolute bioavailability of tadalafil following oral dosing has not been determined.

The rate and extent of absorption of tadalafil are not influenced by food; thus ADCIRCA may be taken with or without food.

Distribution — The mean apparent volume of distribution following oral administration is approximately 77 L, indicating that tadalafil is distributed into tissues. At therapeutic concentrations, 94% of tadalafil in plasma is bound to proteins.

Metabolism — Tadalafil is predominantly metabolized by CYP3A to a catechol metabolite. The catechol metabolite undergoes extensive methylation and glucuronidation to form the methylcatechol and methylcatechol glucuronide conjugate, respectively. The major circulating metabolite is the methylcatechol glucuronide. Methylcatechol concentrations are less than 10% of glucuronide concentrations. In vitro data suggests that metabolites are not expected to be pharmacologically active at observed metabolite concentrations.

Elimination — Following 40 mg, the mean oral clearance for tadalafil is 3.4 L/hr and the mean terminal half-life is 15 hours in healthy subjects. In patients with pulmonary hypertension not receiving concomitant bosentan, the mean oral clearance for tadalafil is 1.6 L/hr, and the mean terminal half-life is 35 hours. Tadalafil is excreted predominantly as metabolites, mainly in the feces (approximately 61% of the dose) and to a lesser extent in the urine (approximately 36% of the dose).

Population pharmacokinetics — In patients with pulmonary hypertension not receiving concomitant bosentan, the average tadalafil exposure at steady-state following 40 mg was 26% higher when compared to those of healthy volunteers. The results suggest a lower clearance of tadalafil in patients with pulmonary hypertension compared to healthy volunteers.

Geriatric patients

In healthy male elderly subjects (65 years or over) after a 10 mg dose, a lower oral clearance of tadalafil, resulting in 25% higher exposure (AUC) with no effect on Cmax was observed relative to that in healthy subjects 19 to 45 years of age.

Renal impairment

In clinical pharmacology studies using single-dose tadalafil (5 to 10 mg), tadalafil exposure (AUC) doubled in subjects with mild (creatinine clearance 51 to 80 mL/min) or moderate (creatinine clearance 31 to 50 mL/min) renal impairment. In subjects with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis, there was a two-fold increase in Cmax and 2.7- to 4.1-fold increase in AUC following single-dose administration of 10 or 20 mg tadalafil, respectively. Exposure to total methylcatechol (unconjugated plus glucuronide) was 2- to 4-fold higher in subjects with renal impairment, compared to those with normal renal function. Hemodialysis (performed between 24 and 30 hours post-dose) contributed negligibly to tadalafil or metabolite elimination [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Hepatic impairment

In clinical pharmacology studies, tadalafil exposure (AUC) in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A or B) was comparable to exposure in healthy subjects when a dose of 10 mg was administered. There are no available data for doses higher than 10 mg of tadalafil in patients with hepatic impairment. Insufficient data are available for subjects with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

Patients with diabetes mellitus

In male patients with diabetes mellitus after a 10 mg tadalafil dose, exposure (AUC) was reduced approximately 19% and Cmax was 5% lower than that observed in healthy subjects. No dose adjustment is warranted.


Pharmacokinetic studies have included subjects from different ethnic groups, and no differences in the typical exposure to tadalafil have been identified. No dose adjustment is warranted.


In healthy female and male subjects following single and multiple-doses of tadalafil, no clinically relevant differences in exposure (AUC and Cmax ) were observed. No dose adjustment is warranted.

Drug interaction studies

Tadalafil is a substrate of and predominantly metabolized by CYP3A. Drugs that inhibit CYP3A can increase tadalafil exposure.


Ritonavir (500 mg or 600 mg twice daily at steady state), an inhibitor of CYP3A, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6, increased tadalafil 20–mg single-dose exposure (AUC) by 32% with a 30% reduction in Cmax , relative to the values for tadalafil 20 mg alone. Ritonavir (200 mg twice daily), increased tadalafil 20–mg single-dose exposure (AUC) by 124% with no change in Cmax , relative to the values for tadalafil 20 mg alone. Ritonavir inhibits and induces CYP3A, the enzyme involved in the metabolism of tadalafil, in a time-dependent manner. The results suggest the initial inhibitory effect of ritonavir on CYP3A may be mitigated by a more slowly evolving induction effect so that after about 1 week of ritonavir twice daily, the exposure of tadalafil is similar in the presence of and absence of ritonavir [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Warnings and Precautions (5.2), and Drug Interactions (7.2)]. Although specific interactions have not been studied, other HIV protease inhibitors would likely increase tadalafil exposure.

Other Cytochrome P450 inhibitors

CYP3A (e.g., ketoconazole) — Ketoconazole (400 mg daily), a selective and potent inhibitor of CYP3A, increased tadalafil 20 mg single-dose exposure (AUC) by 312% and Cmax by 22%, relative to the values for tadalafil 20 mg alone. Ketoconazole (200 mg daily) increased tadalafil 10–mg single-dose exposure (AUC) by 107% and Cmax by 15%, relative to the values for tadalafil 10 mg alone.

Although specific interactions have not been studied, other CYP3A inhibitors, such as erythromycin, itraconazole, and grapefruit juice, would likely increase tadalafil exposure.

Cytochrome P450 inducers

CYP3A (e.g., rifampin, bosentan) — Rifampin (600 mg daily), a CYP3A inducer, reduced tadalafil 10 mg single–dose exposure (AUC) by 88% and Cmax by 46%, relative to the values for tadalafil 10 mg alone.

Bosentan (125 mg twice daily), a substrate of CYP2C9 and CYP3A and a moderate inducer of CYP3A, CYP2C9 and possibly CYP2C19, reduced tadalafil (40 mg once per day) systemic exposure by 42% and Cmax by 27% following multiple-dose co-administration.

Although specific interactions have not been studied, other CYP3A inducers, such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital, would likely decrease tadalafil exposure.

Cytochrome P450 substrates — Tadalafil is not expected to cause clinically significant inhibition or induction of the clearance of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms.

CYP1A2 (e.g., theophylline) — Tadalafil (10 mg once per day) had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. When tadalafil was administered to subjects taking theophylline, a small augmentation (3 beats per minute) of the increase in heart rate associated with theophylline was observed.

CYP2C9 (e.g., warfarin) — Tadalafil (10 mg and 20 mg once per day) had no significant effect on exposure (AUC) to S–warfarin or R–warfarin, nor did tadalafil affect changes in prothrombin time induced by warfarin.

CYP3A (e.g., midazolam, lovastatin or bosentan) — Tadalafil (10 mg and 20 mg once per day) had no significant effect on exposure (AUC) to midazolam or lovastatin. Tadalafil (40 mg once per day) had no clinically significant effect on exposure (AUC and Cmax ) of bosentan, a substrate of CYP2C9 and CYP3A, or its metabolites.

Aspirin — Tadalafil (10 mg and 20 mg once per day) did not potentiate the increase in bleeding time caused by aspirin.

P-glycoprotein (e.g., digoxin) — Coadministration of tadalafil (40 mg once per day) for 10 days did not have a significant effect on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of digoxin (0.25 mg/day) in healthy subjects.

Combined oral contraceptives — At steady-state, tadalafil (40 mg once per day) increased ethinyl estradiol exposure (AUC) by 26% and Cmax by 70% relative to oral contraceptive administered with placebo. There was no significant effect of tadalafil on levonorgestrel.

Antacids — Simultaneous administration of an antacid (magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide) and tadalafil (10 mg) reduced the apparent rate of absorption of tadalafil without altering exposure (AUC) to tadalafil.

H2 antagonists (e.g., nizatidine) — An increase in gastric pH resulting from administration of nizatidine had no significant effect on tadalafil (10 mg) pharmacokinetics.


13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis — Tadalafil was not carcinogenic to rats or mice when administered daily for 2 years at doses up to 400 mg/kg/day. Systemic drug exposures, as measured by AUC of unbound tadalafil, were approximately 5–fold for mice, and 7– and 14–fold for male and female rats, respectively, the exposures at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 40 mg.

Mutagenesis — Tadalafil was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial Ames assays or the forward mutation test in mouse lymphoma cells. Tadalafil was not clastogenic in the in vitro chromosomal aberration test in human lymphocytes or the in vivo rat micronucleus assays.

Impairment of Fertility — There were no effects on fertility, reproductive performance or reproductive organ morphology in male or female rats given oral doses of tadalafil up to 400 mg/kg/day, a dose producing AUCs for unbound tadalafil of 6–fold for males or 17–fold for females the exposures at the MRHD of 40 mg. In beagle dogs given tadalafil daily for 3 to 12 months, there was treatment–related non–reversible degeneration and atrophy of the seminiferous tubular epithelium in the testes in 20–100% of the dogs that resulted in a decrease in spermatogenesis in 40–75% of the dogs at doses of ≥10 mg/kg/day. Systemic exposure (based on AUC) at no–observed–adverse-effect–level (NOAEL) (10 mg/kg/day) for unbound tadalafil was similar to that expected in humans at the MRHD of 40 mg.

There were no treatment–related testicular findings in rats or mice treated with doses up to 400 mg/kg/day for 2 years.

13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

Animal studies showed vascular inflammation in tadalafil–treated mice, rats, and dogs. In mice and rats, lymphoid necrosis and hemorrhage were seen in the spleen, thymus, and mesenteric lymph nodes at unbound tadalafil exposure of 1– to 17–fold the human exposure (AUCs) at the MRHD of 40 mg. In dogs, an increased incidence of disseminated arteritis was observed in 1– and 6-month studies at unbound tadalafil exposure of 0.5– to 38–fold the human exposure (AUC) at the MRHD of 40 mg. In a 12–month dog study, no disseminated arteritis was observed, but 2 dogs exhibited marked decreases in white blood cells (neutrophils) and moderate decreases in platelets with inflammatory signs at unbound tadalafil exposures of approximately 4– to 10–fold the human exposure at the MRHD of 40 mg. The abnormal blood–cell findings were reversible within 2 weeks upon removal of the drug.

13.3 Reproductive Toxicology Studies

Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and mice at exposures up to 17 times the MRHD of 40 mg and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus because of tadalafil. In addition, there was no evidence of teratogenicity, embryotoxicity, or fetotoxicity when tadalafil was given to pregnant rats or mice at exposures up to 7 times the MRHD during the period of major organ development.

In a rat prenatal and postnatal development study at doses of 60, 200, and 1000 mg/kg, a reduction in postnatal survival of pups was observed. The no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for maternal toxicity was 200 mg/kg/day and for developmental toxicity was 30 mg/kg/day. This gives approximately 8- and 5-fold exposure multiples, respectively, of the human AUC for the MRHD of 40 mg. Tadalafil and/or its metabolites cross the placenta, resulting in fetal exposure in rats.

Tadalafil and/or its metabolites were secreted into the milk in lactating rats at concentrations approximately 2.4–fold greater than found in the plasma.


14.1 ADCIRCA for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

A randomized, double-blind, 16 week placebo-controlled study was conducted in 405 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥25 mm Hg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) ≤15 mm Hg, and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) ≥3 Wood units via right heart catheterization. Allowed background therapy included bosentan (maintenance dosing up to 125 mg twice daily) and chronic anticoagulation. The use of prostacyclin or analogue, L–arginine, phosphodiesterase inhibitor, or other chronic PAH medications were not permitted.

Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups (tadalafil 2.5, 10, 20, 40 mg, or placebo) in a 1:1:1:1:1 ratio. Subjects had to be at least 12 years of age and had a diagnosis of PAH that was idiopathic, heritable, related to connective tissue disease, anorexigen use, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, associated with an atrial-septal defect, or associated with surgical repair of a congenital systemic-to-pulmonary shunt of least 1 year in duration (for example, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus). Patients with a history of left-sided heart disease, severe renal insufficiency, or pulmonary hypertension related to conditions other than specified in the inclusion criteria were not eligible for enrollment.

The mean age of all subjects was 54 years (range 14 — 90 years) with the majority of subjects being Caucasian (81%) and female (78%). PAH etiologies were predominantly idiopathic or heritable PAH (61%) and related to connective tissue disease (23%). More than half (53%) of the subjects in the study were receiving concomitant bosentan therapy. The majority of subjects had a World Health Organization (WHO) Functional Class III (65%) or II (32%). The mean baseline 6-minute walk distance (6-MWD) was 343 meters. Of the 405 subjects, 341 completed the study.

The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline at week 16 in 6-MWD (see Figure 1). In the ADCIRCA 40 mg treatment group, the placebo-adjusted mean change increase in 6-MWD was 33 meters (95% C.I. 15-50 meters; p=0.0004). The improvement in 6-MWD was apparent at 8 weeks of treatment and then maintained at week 12 and week 16.

Figure 1
(click image for full-size original)

Figure 1: 6-Minute Walk Distance (meters) Mean Change from Baseline, with 95% Confidence Intervals

Placebo-adjusted changes in 6-MWD at 16 weeks were evaluated in subgroups (see Figure 2). In patients taking only ADCIRCA 40 mg (i.e., without concomitant bosentan), the placebo-adjusted mean change in 6-MWD was 44 meters. In patients taking ADCIRCA 40 mg and concomitant bosentan therapy, the placebo adjusted mean change in 6-MWD was 23 meters.

Figure 2
(click image for full-size original)

Figure 2: Placebo-adjusted Mean Change in 6-Minute Walk Distance (meters) of ADCIRCA 40 mg, with 95% Confidence Intervals

There was less clinical worsening (defined as death, lung transplantation, atrial septostomy, hospitalization because of worsening PAH, initiation of new PAH therapy [prostacyclin or analog, endothelin receptor antagonist, PDE5 inhibitor], or worsening WHO functional class) in the ADCIRCA 40 mg group compared to the placebo group and the groups that used lower doses of ADCIRCA.

Table 2: Number (percent) with Clinical Worseninga

a Subjects may be counted in more than one category

2.5 mg
10 mg
20 mg
40 mg
Total with clinical worsening 13 (16) 10 (12) 7 (9) 8 (10) 4 (5)
Death 1 0 1 0 0
Hospitalization for worsening PAH 2 2 3 0 1
New PAH therapy 0 1 0 2 1
Worsening WHO class 11 10 6 6 3

The Kaplan-Meier plot of times to clinical worsening is shown below in Figure 3.

Figure 3
(click image for full-size original)

Figure 3: Kaplan-Meier Plot of Time to Clinical Worsening provides trustworthy package insert and label information about marketed drugs as submitted by manufacturers to the US Food and Drug Administration. Package information is not reviewed or updated separately by Every individual package label entry contains a unique identifier which can be used to secure further details directly from the US National Institutes of Health and/or the FDA.

As the leading independent provider of trustworthy medication information, we source our database directly from the FDA's central repository of drug labels and package inserts under the Structured Product Labeling standard. Our material is not intended as a substitute for direct consultation with a qualified health professional.

Terms of Use | Copyright © 2023. All Rights Reserved.