ADAPALENE AND BENZOYL PEROXIDE — adapalene and benzoyl peroxide gel
Viona Pharmaceuticals Inc
- For topical use only. Adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel is not for oral, ophthalmic, or intravaginal use.
- Apply a thin layer of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel to affected areas of the face and/or trunk once daily after washing.
- Use a pea-sized amount for each area of the face (e.g., forehead, chin, each cheek).
- Wash hands after application as adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel may bleach hair or colored fabrics.
- Avoid the eyes, lips and mucous membranes.
Each gram of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel contains 3 mg (0.3%) adapalene, USP and 25 mg (2.5%) benzoyl peroxide, USP in a white to very pale yellow opaque gel. Adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel is available in pumps containing 45 g or 60 g.
Adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to benzoyl peroxide or any components of the formulation in adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel.
Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, and urticaria, have been reported with the use of benzoyl peroxide products. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction occurs, discontinue adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel immediately and initiate appropriate therapy.
Avoid exposure to sunlight, including sunlamps, during the use of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel. Patients with high levels of sun exposure and those with inherent sensitivity to sun should exercise particular caution. Use of broad spectrum sunscreen products and protective apparel (e.g., hat) are recommended when exposure cannot be avoided. Weather extremes, such as wind or cold, may be irritating to patients under treatment with adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel.
Erythema, scaling, dryness and stinging/burning may be experienced with use of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel. These are most likely to occur during the first four weeks of treatment, are mostly mild to moderate in intensity and usually lessen with continued use of the medication. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis may occur. Depending upon the severity of these adverse reactions, patients should be instructed to use a moisturizer, reduce the frequency of the application of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel or discontinue use. The product should not be applied to cuts, abrasions, eczematous or sunburned skin. As with other retinoids, use of “waxing” as a depilatory method should be avoided on skin treated with adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel.
Avoid concomitant use of other potentially irritating topical products (medicated or abrasive soaps and cleansers, soaps and cosmetics that have strong skin-drying effect and products with high concentrations of alcohol, astringents, spices or limes).
- Hypersensitivity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Skin Irritation/Contact Dermatitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
During the randomized, double-blind, vehicle- and active-controlled clinical trial, 217 subjects were exposed to adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel. A total of 197 subjects with acne vulgaris, 12 years and older, were treated once daily for 12 weeks. Adverse reactions reported within 12 weeks of treatment in at least 1% of subjects treated with adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel and for which the rate with adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel exceeded the rate for the vehicle are presented in Table 1:
|Adapalene and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical Gel, 0.3%/2.5% (N=217)||Adapalene and Benzoyl Peroxide Gel, 0.1%/2.5% (N=217)||Vehicle (N=69)|
|Skin irritation||4%||< 1%||0%|
|Skin burning sensation||1%||0%||0%|
Local tolerability evaluations presented in Table 2, were conducted at each trial visit in the clinical trial by assessment of erythema, scaling, dryness and stinging/burning, which peaked at Week 1 of therapy and decreased thereafter.
|Maximum Severity During Treatment||End of Treatment Severity (Final Score)|
|Adapalene and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical Gel, 0.3%/2.5% (N=213)|
|Adapalene and Benzoyl Peroxide Gel, 0.1%/2.5% (N=212)|
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: sunburn, blister (including vesicles and bullae), pruritus, hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation.
Available pharmacovigilance data with adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel use in pregnant women are insufficient to establish a drug associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with the combination gel.
Adapalene gel, 0.3%
Available data from clinical trials with adapalene gel 0.3% use in pregnant women are insufficient to establish a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of adapalene to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at dose exposures 41 and 81 times, respectively, the human exposure at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 2 g resulted in fetal skeletal and visceral malformations (see Data).
Benzoyl peroxide gel, 2.5%
The systemic exposure of benzoyl peroxide is unknown. Based on published literature, benzoyl peroxide is rapidly metabolized to benzoic acid (an endogenous substance), which is eliminated in the urine. Hence, maternal use is not expected to result in fetal exposure of the drug.
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
No malformations were observed in rats treated with oral adapalene doses of 0.15 mg/kg/day to 5 mg/kg/day, up to 8 times the MRHD of 2 grams of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel based on a mg/m2 comparison. However, malformations were observed in rats and rabbits when treated with oral doses of ≥ 25 mg/kg/day adapalene (41 and 81 times the MRHD, respectively, based on a mg/m2 comparison). Findings included cleft palate, microphthalmia, encephalocele, and skeletal abnormalities in rats and umbilical hernia, exophthalmos, and kidney and skeletal abnormalities in rabbits.
Dermal adapalene embryofetal development studies in rats and rabbits at doses up to 6 mg/kg/day (9.7 and 19.5 times the MRHD, respectively, based on a mg/m2 comparison) exhibited no fetotoxicity and only minimal increases in skeletal variations (supernumerary ribs in both species and delayed ossification in rabbits).
Adapalene gel, 0.3%
There are no data on the presence of adapalene topical gel or its metabolite in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. In animal studies, adapalene is present in rat milk with oral administration of the drug. When a drug is present in animal milk, it is likely that the drug will be present in human milk. It is possible that topical administration of large amounts of adapalene could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in human milk (see Clinical Considerations).
Benzoyl peroxide gel, 2.5%
The systemic exposure of benzoyl peroxide is unknown. Based on the published literature, benzoyl peroxide is rapidly metabolized to benzoic acid (an endogenous substance), which is eliminated in the urine. Any amount of benzoyl peroxide excreted into human milk by a nursing mother would be expected to be rapidly metabolized by tissue and stomach esterases. There are no data on the presence of benzoyl peroxide in human milk, its effects on the breastfed infant or its effects on milk production.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel or from the underlying maternal condition.
To minimize potential exposure to the breastfed infant via breastmilk, use adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel on the smallest area of skin and for the shortest duration possible while breastfeeding. Advise breastfeeding women not to apply adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel directly to the nipple and areola to avoid direct infant exposure.
Clinical studies of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.
Adapalene USP, a synthetic retinoid, is a naphthoic acid derivative with retinoid-like properties. The chemical name for adapalene is (6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-methoxyphenyl]-2-naphthoic acid). It has the following structural formula:
Molecular weight: 412.5
Hydrous benzoyl peroxide, USP is a highly lipophilic oxidizing agent that localizes in both bacterial and keratinocyte cell membranes. The chemical name for benzoyl peroxide is dibenzoyl peroxide. It has the following structural formula:
Molecular weight: 242.23
Adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical gel contains the following inactive ingredients: acrylamide/sodium acryloyldimethyl taurate copolymer, docusate sodium, edetate disodium, glycerin, isohexadecane, poloxamer 124, polysorbate 80, propylene glycol, purified water and sorbitan monooleate.
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