The safety and efficacy of abiraterone acetate tablets have not been established in females. There is no information available on the presence of abiraterone in human milk, or on the effects on the breastfed child or milk production.
Based on findings in animal reproduction studies and its mechanism of action, advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 3 weeks after the final dose of abiraterone acetate tablets [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Based on animal studies, abiraterone acetate tablets may impair reproductive function and fertility in males of reproductive potential [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
Safety and effectiveness of abiraterone acetate tablets in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of the total number of patients receiving abiraterone acetate tablets in randomized clinical trials, 70% of patients were 65 years and over and 27% were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these elderly patients and younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
The pharmacokinetics of abiraterone were examined in subjects with baseline mild (N = 8) or moderate (N = 8) hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A and B, respectively) and in 8 healthy control subjects with normal hepatic function. The systemic exposure (AUC) of abiraterone after a single oral 1,000 mg dose of abiraterone acetate tablets increased by approximately 1.1-fold and 3.6-fold in subjects with mild and moderate baseline hepatic impairment, respectively compared to subjects with normal hepatic function.
In another trial, the pharmacokinetics of abiraterone were examined in subjects with baseline severe (N = 8) hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) and in 8 healthy control subjects with normal hepatic function. The systemic exposure (AUC) of abiraterone increased by approximately 7-fold and the fraction of free drug increased 2-fold in subjects with severe baseline hepatic impairment compared to subjects with normal hepatic function.
No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with baseline mild hepatic impairment. In patients with baseline moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B), reduce the recommended dose of abiraterone acetate tablets to 250 mg once daily. Do not use abiraterone acetate tablets in patients with baseline severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C). If elevations in ALT or AST > 5 x ULN or total bilirubin > 3 x ULN occur in patients with baseline moderate hepatic impairment, discontinue abiraterone acetate tablets treatment [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
For patients who develop hepatotoxicity during treatment, interruption of treatment and dosage adjustment may be required [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Warnings and Precautions (5.3), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Human experience of overdose with abiraterone acetate tablets is limited.
There is no specific antidote. In the event of an overdose, stop abiraterone acetate tablets, undertake general supportive measures, including monitoring for arrhythmias and cardiac failure and assess liver function.
Abiraterone acetate, the active ingredient of abiraterone acetate tablets, USP is the acetyl ester of abiraterone. Abiraterone is an inhibitor of CYP17 (17α-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase). Each abiraterone acetate tablet contains either 250 mg or 500 mg of abiraterone acetate. Abiraterone acetate is designated chemically as 17-(Pyridin-3-yl)androsta-5,16-dien-3β-yl acetate and its structure is:
Abiraterone acetate, USP is a white to off-white, non-hygroscopic, powder. Its molecular formula is C26 H33 NO2 and it has a molecular weight of 391.55. Abiraterone acetate is a lipophilic compound with an octanol-water partition coefficient of 5.12 (Log P) and is practically insoluble in water. The pKa of the aromatic nitrogen is 5.19.
Abiraterone acetate tablets are available in 500 mg film-coated tablets, 250 mg film-coated tablets and 250 mg uncoated tablets with the following inactive ingredients:
- 500 mg film-coated tablets: croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, sodium lauryl sulfate, titanium dioxide and triacetin.
- 250 mg film-coated tablets: croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, sodium lauryl sulfate, titanium dioxide and triacetin.
- 250 mg uncoated tablets: croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone and sodium lauryl sulfate.
Meets USP Dissolution Test 3 for the 500 mg tablets.
Abiraterone acetate is converted in vivo to abiraterone, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, that inhibits 17 α-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase (CYP17). This enzyme is expressed in testicular, adrenal, and prostatic tumor tissues and is required for androgen biosynthesis.
CYP17 catalyzes two sequential reactions: 1) the conversion of pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17α-hydroxy derivatives by 17α-hydroxylase activity and 2) the subsequent formation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione, respectively, by C17, 20 lyase activity. DHEA and androstenedione are androgens and are precursors of testosterone. Inhibition of CYP17 by abiraterone can also result in increased mineralocorticoid production by the adrenals [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Androgen sensitive prostatic carcinoma responds to treatment that decreases androgen levels. Androgen deprivation therapies, such as treatment with GnRH agonists or orchiectomy, decrease androgen production in the testes but do not affect androgen production by the adrenals or in the tumor.
Abiraterone acetate tablets decreased serum testosterone and other androgens in patients in the placebo-controlled clinical trial. It is not necessary to monitor the effect of abiraterone acetate tablets on serum testosterone levels.
Changes in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels may be observed but have not been shown to correlate with clinical benefit in individual patients.
In a multi-center, open-label, single-arm trial, 33 patients with metastatic CRPC received abiraterone acetate tablets orally at a dose of 1,000 mg once daily at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal in combination with prednisone 5 mg orally twice daily. Assessments up to Cycle 2 Day 2 showed no large changes in the QTc interval (i.e., > 20 ms) from baseline. However, small increases in the QTc interval (i.e., < 10 ms) due to abiraterone acetate cannot be excluded due to study design limitations.
Following administration of abiraterone acetate, the pharmacokinetics of abiraterone have been studied in healthy subjects and in patients with metastatic CRPC. In vivo , abiraterone acetate is converted to abiraterone. In clinical studies, abiraterone acetate plasma concentrations were below detectable levels (< 0.2 ng/mL) in > 99% of the analyzed samples.
Following oral administration of abiraterone acetate to patients with metastatic CRPC, the median time to reach maximum plasma abiraterone concentrations is 2 hours. Abiraterone accumulation is observed at steady-state, with a 2-fold higher exposure (steady-state AUC) compared to a single 1,000 mg dose of abiraterone acetate.
At the dose of 1,000 mg daily in patients with metastatic CRPC, steady-state values (mean ± SD) of Cmax were 226 ± 178 ng/mL and of AUC were 993 ± 639 ng•hr/mL. No major deviation from dose proportionality was observed in the dose range of 250 mg to 1,000 mg. However, the exposure was not significantly increased when the dose was doubled from 1,000 to 2,000 mg (8% increase in the mean AUC).
Systemic exposure of abiraterone is increased when abiraterone acetate is administered with food. In healthy subjects abiraterone Cmax and AUC0-∞ were approximately 7- and 5-fold higher, respectively, when a single dose of abiraterone acetate was administered with a low-fat meal (7% fat, 300 calories) and approximately 17- and 10-fold higher, respectively, when a single dose of abiraterone acetate was administered with a high-fat (57% fat, 825 calories) meal compared to overnight fasting. Abiraterone AUC0-∞ was approximately 7-fold or 1.6-fold higher, respectively, when a single dose of abiraterone acetate was administered 2 hours after or 1 hour before a medium fat meal (25% fat, 491 calories) compared to overnight fasting.
Systemic exposures of abiraterone in patients with metastatic CRPC, after repeated dosing of abiraterone acetate were similar when abiraterone acetate was taken with low-fat meals for 7 days and increased approximately 2-fold when taken with high-fat meals for 7 days compared to when taken at least 2 hours after a meal and at least 1 hour before a meal for 7 days.
Given the normal variation in the content and composition of meals, taking abiraterone acetate tablets with meals has the potential to result in increased and highly variable exposures.
Abiraterone is highly bound (> 99%) to the human plasma proteins, albumin and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. The apparent steady-state volume of distribution (mean ± SD) is 19,669 ± 13,358 L.
In patients with metastatic CRPC, the mean terminal half-life of abiraterone in plasma (mean ± SD) is 12 ± 5 hours.
Following oral administration of 14 C-abiraterone acetate as capsules, abiraterone acetate is hydrolyzed to abiraterone (active metabolite). The conversion is likely through esterase activity (the esterases have not been identified) and is not CYP mediated. The two main circulating metabolites of abiraterone in human plasma are abiraterone sulphate (inactive) and N-oxide abiraterone sulphate (inactive), which account for about 43% of exposure each. CYP3A4 and SULT2A1 are the enzymes involved in the formation of N-oxide abiraterone sulphate and SULT2A1 is involved in the formation of abiraterone sulphate.
Following oral administration of 14 C-abiraterone acetate, approximately 88% of the radioactive dose is recovered in feces and approximately 5% in urine. The major compounds present in feces are unchanged abiraterone acetate and abiraterone (approximately 55% and 22% of the administered dose, respectively).
The pharmacokinetics of abiraterone was examined in subjects with baseline mild (N = 8) or moderate (N = 8) hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A and B, respectively) and in 8 healthy control subjects with normal hepatic function. Systemic exposure to abiraterone after a single oral 1,000 mg dose given under fasting conditions increased approximately 1.1-fold and 3.6-fold in subjects with mild and moderate baseline hepatic impairment, respectively. The mean half-life of abiraterone is prolonged to approximately 18 hours in subjects with mild hepatic impairment and to approximately 19 hours in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment.
In another trial, the pharmacokinetics of abiraterone were examined in subjects with baseline severe (N = 8) hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) and in 8 healthy control subjects with normal hepatic function. The systemic exposure (AUC) of abiraterone increased by approximately 7-fold in subjects with severe baseline hepatic impairment compared to subjects with normal hepatic function. In addition, the mean protein binding was found to be lower in the severe hepatic impairment group compared to the normal hepatic function group, which resulted in a two-fold increase in the fraction of free drug in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
The pharmacokinetics of abiraterone were examined in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on a stable hemodialysis schedule (N = 8) and in matched control subjects with normal renal function (N = 8). In the ESRD cohort of the trial, a single 1,000 mg abiraterone acetate tablets dose was given under fasting conditions 1 hour after dialysis, and samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 96 hours post dose. Systemic exposure to abiraterone after a single oral 1,000 mg dose did not increase in subjects with end-stage renal disease on dialysis, compared to subjects with normal renal function.
Effect of Other Drugs on Abiraterone Acetate Tablets
Strong CYP3A4 inducers: In a clinical pharmacokinetic interaction study of healthy subjects pretreated with a strong CYP3A4 inducer (rifampin, 600 mg daily for 6 days) followed by a single dose of abiraterone acetate 1,000 mg, the mean plasma AUC∞ of abiraterone was decreased by 55%.
Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors: Co-administration of ketoconazole, a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4, had no clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of abiraterone.
Effect of Abiraterone Acetate Tablets on Other Drugs
CYP2D6 substrates: The Cmax and AUC of dextromethorphan (CYP2D6 substrate) were increased 2.8- and 2.9-fold, respectively when dextromethorphan 30 mg was given with abiraterone acetate 1,000 mg daily (plus prednisone 5 mg twice daily). The AUC for dextrorphan, the active metabolite of dextromethorphan, increased approximately 1.3 fold.
CYP1A2 substrates: When abiraterone acetate 1,000 mg daily (plus prednisone 5 mg twice daily) was given with a single dose of 100 mg theophylline (CYP1A2 substrate), no increase in systemic exposure of theophylline was observed.
CYP2C8 substrates: The AUC of pioglitazone (CYP2C8 substrate) was increased by 46% when pioglitazone was given to healthy subjects with a single dose of 1,000 mg abiraterone acetate.
In Vitro Studies
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Enzymes: Abiraterone is a substrate of CYP3A4 and has the potential to inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2C8 and to a lesser extent CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5.
In vitro studies show that at clinically relevant concentrations, abiraterone acetate and abiraterone are not substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and that abiraterone acetate is an inhibitor of P-gp. In vitro, abiraterone and its major metabolites were shown to inhibit the hepatic uptake transporter OATP1B1. There are no clinical data available to confirm transporter based interaction.
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