Abacavir Sulfate: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 3 of 6)

Animal Data

Abacavir was administered orally to pregnant rats (at 100, 300, and 1,000 mg per kg per day) and rabbits (at 125, 350, or 700 mg per kg per day) during organogenesis (on Gestation Days 6 through 17 and 6 through 20, respectively). Fetal malformations (increased incidences of fetal anasarca and skeletal malformations) or developmental toxicity (decreased fetal body weight and crown-rump length) were observed in rats at doses up to 1,000 mg per kg per day, resulting in exposures approximately 35 times the human exposure (AUC) at the recommended daily dose. No developmental effects were observed in rats at 100 mg per kg per day, resulting in exposures (AUC) 3.5 times the human exposure at the recommended daily dose. In a fertility and early embryo-fetal development study conducted in rats (at 60, 160, or 500 mg per kg per day), embryonic and fetal toxicities (increased resorptions, decreased fetal body weights) or toxicities to the offspring (increased incidence of stillbirth and lower body weights) occurred at doses up to 500 mg per kg per day. No developmental effects were observed in rats at 60 mg per kg per day, resulting in exposures (AUC) approximately 4 times the human exposure at the recommended daily dose. Studies in pregnant rats showed that abacavir is transferred to the fetus through the placenta. In pregnant rabbits, no developmental toxicities and no increases in fetal malformations occurred at up to the highest dose evaluated, resulting in exposures (AUC) approximately 9 times the human exposure at the recommended dose.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that HIV-1–infected mothers in the United States not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1 infection. Abacavir is present in human milk. There is no information on the effects of abacavir on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production. Because of the potential for (1) HIV-1 transmission (in HIV-negative infants), (2) developing viral resistance (in HIV-positive infants), and (3) adverse reactions in a breastfed infant, instruct mothers not to breastfeed if they are receiving abacavir.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of abacavir have been established in pediatric patients aged 3 months and older. Use of abacavir is supported by pharmacokinetic trials and evidence from adequate and well-controlled trials of abacavir in adults and pediatric subjects [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Adverse Reactions (6.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Clinical Studies (14.2)].

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical trials of abacavir did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, caution should be exercised in the administration of abacavir in elderly patients reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

8.6 Patients with Impaired Hepatic Function

A dose reduction is required for patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A) [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. The safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic properties of abacavir have not been established in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment; therefore, abacavir is contraindicated in these patients [see Contraindications (4), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

10 OVERDOSAGE

There is no known specific treatment for overdose with abacavir. If overdose occurs, the patient should be monitored and standard supportive treatment applied as required. It is not known whether abacavir can be removed by peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis.

11 DESCRIPTION

Abacavir sulfate is a synthetic carbocyclic nucleoside analogue with inhibitory activity against HIV-1. The chemical name of abacavir sulfate is (1S ,4R)-4-[2-Amino-6-(cyclopropylamino)-9H -purin-9-yl]-2-cyclopentene-1-methanol sulfate (salt) (2:1). Abacavir sulfate is the enantiomer with 1S, 4R absolute configuration on the cyclopentene ring. It has a molecular formula of (C14 H18 N6 O)2 •H2 SO4 and a molecular weight of 670.76 g per mol. It has the following structural formula:

Abacavir Sulfate Structural Formula

Abacavir sulfate, USP is a white to off-white powder and is soluble in water.

Abacavir tablets, USP are for oral administration. Each tablet contains abacavir sulfate equivalent to 300 mg of abacavir as active ingredient and the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, red iron oxide, sodium starch glycolate (potato), titanium dioxide and yellow iron oxide.

In vivo , abacavir sulfate dissociates to its free base, abacavir. Dosages are expressed in terms of abacavir.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Abacavir is an antiretroviral agent [see Microbiology (12.4)].

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacokinetics in Adults

The pharmacokinetic properties of abacavir were independent of dose over the range of 300 to 1,200 mg per day.

Absorption

Following oral administration, abacavir is rapidly absorbed and extensively distributed. The geometric mean absolute bioavailability of the tablet was 83%. Plasma abacavir AUC was similar following administration of the oral solution or tablets. After oral administration of 300 mg twice daily in 20 subjects, the steady-state peak serum abacavir concentration (Cmax ) was 3.0 ± 0.89 mcg per mL (mean ± SD) and AUC(0-12 h) was 6.02 ± 1.73 mcg•hour per mL. After oral administration of a single dose of 600 mg of abacavir in 20 subjects, Cmax was 4.26 ± 1.19 mcg per mL (mean ± SD) and AUC was 11.95 ± 2.51 mcg•hour per mL.

Effect of Food

Bioavailability of abacavir tablets was assessed in the fasting and fed states with no significant difference in systemic exposure (AUC ); therefore, abacavir tablets may be administered with or without food. Systemic exposure to abacavir was comparable after administration of abacavir oral solution and abacavir tablets. Therefore, these products may be used interchangeably.

Distribution

The apparent volume of distribution after IV administration of abacavir was 0.86 ± 0.15 L per kg, suggesting that abacavir distributes into extravascular space. In 3 subjects, the CSF AUC(0-6 h) to plasma abacavir AUC(0-6 h) ratio ranged from 27% to 33%.

Binding of abacavir to human plasma proteins is approximately 50% and was independent of concentration. Total blood and plasma drug-related radioactivity concentrations are identical, demonstrating that abacavir readily distributes into erythrocytes.

Elimination

In single-dose trials, the observed elimination half-life (t1/2 ) was 1.54 ± 0.63 hours. After intravenous administration, total clearance was 0.80 ± 0.24 L per hour per kg (mean ± SD).

Metabolism

In humans, abacavir is not significantly metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. The primary routes of elimination of abacavir are metabolism by alcohol dehydrogenase to form the 5′-carboxylic acid and glucuronyl transferase to form the 5′-glucuronide. The metabolites do not have antiviral activity. In vitro experiments reveal that abacavir does not inhibit human CYP3A4, CYP2D6, or CYP2C9 activity at clinically relevant concentrations.

Excretion

Elimination of abacavir was quantified in a mass balance trial following administration of a 600-mg dose of 14 C-abacavir: 99% of the radioactivity was recovered, 1.2% was excreted in the urine as abacavir, 30% as the 5′-carboxylic acid metabolite, 36% as the 5′-glucuronide metabolite, and 15% as unidentified minor metabolites in the urine. Fecal elimination accounted for 16% of the dose.

Specific Populations

Patients with Renal Impairment

The pharmacokinetic properties of abacavir have not been determined in patients with impaired renal function. Renal excretion of unchanged abacavir is a minor route of elimination in humans.

Patients with Hepatic Impairment

The pharmacokinetics of abacavir have been studied in subjects with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A). Results showed that there was a mean increase of 89% in the abacavir AUC and an increase of 58% in the half-life of abacavir after a single dose of 600 mg of abacavir. The AUCs of the metabolites were not modified by mild liver disease; however, the rates of formation and elimination of the metabolites were decreased [see Contraindications (4), Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

Pregnant Women

Abacavir pharmacokinetics were studied in 25 pregnant women during the last trimester of pregnancy receiving abacavir 300 mg twice daily. Abacavir exposure (AUC) during pregnancy was similar to those in postpartum and in HIV-infected non-pregnant historical controls. Consistent with passive diffusion of abacavir across the placenta, abacavir concentrations in neonatal plasma cord samples at birth were essentially equal to those in maternal plasma at delivery.

Pediatric Patients

The pharmacokinetics of abacavir have been studied after either single or repeat doses of abacavir in 169 pediatric subjects. Subjects receiving abacavir oral solution according to the recommended dosage regimen achieved plasma concentrations of abacavir similar to adults. Subjects receiving abacavir oral tablets achieved higher plasma concentrations of abacavir than subjects receiving oral solution.

The pharmacokinetics of abacavir dosed once daily in HIV-1–infected pediatric subjects aged 3 months through 12 years were evaluated in 3 trials (PENTA 13 [n = 14], PENTA 15 [n = 18], and ARROW [n = 36]). All 3 trials were 2-period, crossover, open-label pharmacokinetic trials of twice- versus once-daily dosing of abacavir and lamivudine. For the oral solution as well as the tablet formulation, these 3 trials demonstrated that once-daily dosing provides comparable AUC0-24 to twice-daily dosing of abacavir at the same total daily dose. The mean Cmax was approximately 1.6- to 2.3-fold higher with abacavir once-daily dosing compared with twice-daily dosing.

Geriatric Patients

The pharmacokinetics of abacavir have not been studied in subjects older than 65 years.

Male and Female Patients

A population pharmacokinetic analysis in HIV-1–infected male (n = 304) and female (n = 67) subjects showed no gender differences in abacavir AUC normalized for lean body weight.

Racial Groups

There are no significant or clinically relevant racial differences between blacks and whites in abacavir pharmacokinetics.

Drug Interaction Studies

Effect of Abacavir on the Pharmacokinetics of Other Agents

In vitro studies have shown that abacavir has potential to inhibit CYP1A1 and limited potential to inhibit metabolism mediated by CYP3A4. Abacavir did not inhibit or induce other CYP enzymes (such as CYP2C9, or CYP2D6).

Based on in vitro study results, abacavir at therapeutic drug exposures is not expected to affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are substrates of the following transporters: organic anion transporter polypeptide (OATP)1B1/3, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) or P-glycoprotein (P-gp), organic cation transporter (OCT)1, OCT2, or multidrug and toxic extrusion protein (MATE)1 and MATE2-K.

Riociguat

Coadministration of a single dose of riociguat (0.5 mg) to HIV-1–infected subjects receiving fixed-dose abacavir/dolutegravir/lamivudine is reported to increase riociguat AUC(∞) compared with riociguat AUC(∞) reported in healthy subjects due to CYP1A1 inhibition by abacavir. The exact magnitude of increase in riociguat exposure has not been fully characterized based on findings from two studies [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].

Effect of Other Agents on the Pharmacokinetics of Abacavir

In vitro , abacavir is not a substrate of OATP1B1, OAP1B3, OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, MATE1, MATE2-K, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)2 or MRP4; therefore, drugs that modulate these transporters are not expected to affect abacavir plasma concentrations. Abacavir is a substrate of BCRP and P-gp in vitro ; however, considering its absolute bioavailability (83%), modulators of these transporters are unlikely to result in a clinically relevant impact on abacavir concentrations.

Lamivudine and/or Zidovudine

Fifteen HIV-1–infected subjects were enrolled in a crossover-designed drug interaction trial evaluating single doses of abacavir (600 mg), lamivudine (150 mg), and zidovudine (300 mg) alone or in combination. Analysis showed no clinically relevant changes in the pharmacokinetics of abacavir with the addition of lamivudine or zidovudine or the combination of lamivudine and zidovudine. Lamivudine exposure (AUC decreased 15%) and zidovudine exposure (AUC increased 10%) did not show clinically relevant changes with concurrent abacavir.

Ethanol

Abacavir has no effect on the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol. Ethanol decreases the elimination of abacavir causing an increase in overall exposure. Due to the common metabolic pathways of abacavir and ethanol via alcohol dehydrogenase, the pharmacokinetic interaction between abacavir and ethanol was studied in 24 HIV-1–infected male subjects. Each subject received the following treatments on separate occasions: a single 600-mg dose of abacavir, 0.7 g per kg ethanol (equivalent to 5 alcoholic drinks), and abacavir 600 mg plus 0.7 g per kg ethanol. Coadministration of ethanol and abacavir resulted in a 41% increase in abacavir AUC and a 26% increase in abacavir t1/2 . Abacavir had no effect on the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol, so no clinically significant interaction is expected in men. This interaction has not been studied in females.

Methadone

In a trial of 11 HIV-1–infected subjects receiving methadone-maintenance therapy (40 mg and 90 mg daily), with 600 mg of abacavir twice daily (twice the currently recommended dose), oral methadone clearance increased 22% (90% CI: 6% to 42%). This alteration will not result in a methadone dose modification in the majority of patients; however, an increased methadone dose may be required in a small number of patients [see Drug Interactions (7)]. The addition of methadone had no clinically significant effect on the pharmacokinetic properties of abacavir.

12.4 Microbiology

Abacavir is a carbocyclic synthetic nucleoside analogue. Abacavir is converted by cellular enzymes to the active metabolite, carbovir triphosphate (CBV-TP), an analogue of deoxyguanosine-5′-triphosphate (dGTP). CBV-TP inhibits the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) both by competing with the natural substrate dGTP and by its incorporation into viral DNA.

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