The safety of once-daily compared with twice-daily dosing of abacavir and lamivudine, administered as either single products or as abacavir and lamivudine, was assessed in the ARROW trial (n = 336). Primary safety assessment in the ARROW (COL105677) trial was based on Grade 3 and Grade 4 adverse events. The frequency of Grade 3 and 4 adverse events was similar among subjects randomized to once-daily dosing compared with subjects randomized to twice-daily dosing. One event of Grade 4 hepatitis in the once-daily cohort was considered as uncertain causality by the investigator and all other Grade 3 or 4 adverse events were considered not related by the investigator. No additional safety issues were identified in pediatric subjects receiving abacavir and lamivudine once-daily compared with historical data in adults [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postmarketing use. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Cardiovascular: Myocardial infarction.
Skin: Suspected Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) have been reported in patients receiving abacavir primarily in combination with medications known to be associated with SJS and TEN, respectively. Because of the overlap of clinical signs and symptoms between hypersensitivity to abacavir and SJS and TEN, and the possibility of multiple drug sensitivities in some patients, abacavir should be discontinued and not restarted in such cases. There have also been reports of erythema multiforme with abacavir use [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Abacavir and Lamivudine
Body as a Whole: Redistribution/accumulation of body fat
Endocrine and Metabolic: Hyperglycemia.
Hemic and Lymphatic: Aplastic anemia, anemia (including pure red cell aplasia and severe anemias progressing on therapy), lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly.
Hypersensitivity: Sensitization reactions (including anaphylaxis), urticaria.
Musculoskeletal: Muscle weakness, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation, rhabdomyolysis.
Nervous: Paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy, seizures.
Respiratory: Abnormal breath sounds/wheezing.
Skin: Alopecia, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
In a trial of 11 HIV-1-infected subjects receiving methadone-maintenance therapy with 600 mg of ZIAGEN twice daily (twice the currently recommended dose), oral methadone clearance increased [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. This alteration will not result in a methadone dose modification in the majority of patients; however, an increased methadone dose may be required in a small number of patients.
Coadministration of single doses of lamivudine and sorbitol resulted in a sorbitol dose-dependent reduction in lamivudine exposures. When possible, avoid use of sorbitol-containing medicines with lamivudine-containing medicines [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Coadministration with fixed-dose abacavir/dolutegravir/lamivudine resulted in increased riociguat exposure, which may increase the risk of riociguat adverse reactions [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The riociguat dose may need to be reduced. See full prescribing information for ADEMPAS (riociguat).
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to abacavir and lamivudine tablets during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) at 1-800-258-4263.
Available data from the APR show no difference in the overall risk of birth defects for abacavir or lamivudine compared with the background rate for birth defects of 2.7% in the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) reference population [see Data]. The APR uses the MACDP as the U.S. reference population for birth defects in the general population. The MACDP evaluates women and infants from a limited geographic area and does not include outcomes for births that occurred at less than 20 weeks gestation. The rate of miscarriage is not reported in the APR. The estimated background rate of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies in the U.S. general population is 15% to 20%. The background risk for major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of abacavir to pregnant rats during organogenesis resulted in fetal malformations and other embryonic and fetal toxicities at exposures 35 times the human exposure (AUC) at the recommended clinical daily dose. However, no adverse developmental effects were observed following oral administration of abacavir to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis, at exposures approximately 9 times the human exposure (AUC) at the recommended clinical dose. Oral administration of lamivudine to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis resulted in embryolethality at systemic exposure (AUC) similar to the recommended clinical dose; however, no adverse development effects were observed with oral administration of lamivudine to pregnant rats during organogenesis at plasma concentrations (Cmax ) 35 times the recommended clinical dose (see Data).
Human Data: Abacavir: Human Data: Abacavir: Based on prospective reports to the APR of exposures to abacavir during pregnancy resulting in live births (including over 1,300 exposed in the first trimester and over 1,300 exposed in the second/third trimester), there was no difference between the overall risk of birth defects for abacavir compared with the background birth defect rate of 2.7% in the U.S. reference population of the MACDP. The prevalence of defects in live births was 3.2% (95% CI: 2.3% to 4.3%) following first trimester exposure to abacavir-containing regimens and 2.9% (95% CI: 2.1% to 4.0%) following second/third trimester exposure to abacavir-containing regimens.
Abacavir has been shown to cross the placenta and concentrations in neonatal plasma at birth were essentially equal to those in maternal plasma at delivery [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Lamivudine: Based on prospective reports to the APR of exposures to lamivudine during pregnancy resulting in live births (including over 5,300 exposed in the first trimester and over 7,400 exposed in the second/third trimester), there was no difference between the overall risk of birth defects for lamivudine compared with the background birth defect rate of 2.7% in the U.S. reference population of the MACDP. The prevalence of birth defects in live births was 3.1% (95% CI: 2.7% to 3.6%) following first trimester exposure to lamivudine-containing regimens and 2.9% (95% CI: 2.5%, 3.3%) following second/third trimester exposure to lamivudine-containing regimens.
Lamivudine pharmacokinetics were studied in pregnant women during 2 clinical trials conducted in South Africa. The trials assessed pharmacokinetics in 16 women at 36 weeks gestation using 150 mg lamivudine twice daily with zidovudine, 10 women at 38 weeks gestation using 150 mg lamivudine twice daily with zidovudine, and 10 women at 38 weeks gestation using lamivudine 300 mg twice daily without other antiretrovirals. These trials were not designed or powered to provide efficacy information. Lamivudine concentrations were generally similar in maternal, neonatal, and umbilical cord serum samples. In a subset of subjects, amniotic fluid specimens were collected following natural rupture of membranes and confirmed that lamivudine crosses the placenta in humans. Based on limited data at delivery, median (range) amniotic fluid concentrations of lamivudine were 3.9 (1.2 to 12.8)–fold greater compared with paired maternal serum concentration (n = 8).
Animal Data: Abacavir: Abacavir was administered orally to pregnant rats (at 100, 300, and 1,000 mg per kg per day) and rabbits (at 125, 350, or 700 mg per kg per day) during organogenesis (on Gestation Days 6 through 17 and 6 through 20, respectively). Fetal malformations (increased incidences of fetal anasarca and skeletal malformations) or developmental toxicity (decreased fetal body weight and crown-rump length) were observed in rats at doses up to 1,000 mg per kg per day, resulting in exposures approximately 35 times the human exposure (AUC) at the recommended daily dose. No developmental effects were observed in rats at 100 mg per kg per day, resulting in exposures (AUC) 3.5 times the human exposure at the recommended daily dose. In a fertility and early embryo-fetal development study conducted in rats (at 60, 160, or 500 mg per kg per day), embryonic and fetal toxicities (increased resorptions, decreased fetal body weights) or toxicities to the offspring (increased incidence of stillbirth and lower body weights) occurred at doses up to 500 mg per kg per day. No developmental effects were observed in rats at 60 mg per kg per day, resulting in exposures (AUC) approximately 4 times the human exposure at the recommended daily dose. Studies in pregnant rats showed that abacavir is transferred to the fetus through the placenta. In pregnant rabbits, no developmental toxicities and no increases in fetal malformations occurred at up to the highest dose evaluated, resulting in exposures (AUC) approximately 9 times the human exposure at the recommended dose.
Lamivudine: Lamivudine was administered orally to pregnant rats (at 90, 600, and 4,000 mg per kg per day) and rabbits (at 90, 300 and 1,000 mg per kg per day and at 15, 40, and 90 mg per kg per day) during organogenesis (on Gestation Days 7 through 16 [rat] and 8 through 20 [rabbit]). No evidence of fetal malformations due to lamivudine was observed in rats and rabbits at doses producing plasma concentrations (Cmax ) approximately 35 times higher than human exposure at the recommended daily dose. Evidence of early embryolethality was seen in the rabbit at systemic exposures (AUC) similar to those observed in humans, but there was no indication of this effect in the rat at plasma concentrations (Cmax ) 35 times higher than human exposure at the recommended daily dose. Studies in pregnant rats showed that lamivudine is transferred to the fetus through the placenta. In the fertility/pre-and postnatal development study in rats, lamivudine was administered orally at doses of 180, 900, and 4,000 mg per kg per day from prior to mating through postnatal Day 20). In the study, development of the offspring, including fertility and reproductive performance, were not affected by the maternal administration of lamivudine.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-1-infected mothers in the United States not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1 infection. Abacavir and lamivudine are present in human milk. There is no information on the effects of abacavir and lamivudine on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production. Because of the potential for (1) HIV-1 transmission (in HIV-negative infants), (2) developing viral resistance (in HIV-positive infants), and (3) adverse reactions in a breastfed infant similar to those seen in adults, instruct mothers not to breastfeed if they are receiving abacavir and lamivudine tablets.
The dosing recommendations in this population are based on the safety and efficacy established in a controlled trial conducted using either the combination of EPIVIR and ZIAGEN or abacavir and lamivudine [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Adverse Reactions (6.2), Clinical Studies (14.2)].
In pediatric patients weighing less than 25 kg, use of abacavir and lamivudine as single products is recommended to achieve appropriate dosing.
Clinical trials of abacavir and lamivudine did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, caution should be exercised in the administration of abacavir and lamivudine in elderly patients reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Use in Specific Populations (8.6, 8.7)].
Abacavir and lamivudine is not recommended for patients with creatinine clearance less than 30 mL per min because abacavir and lamivudine is a fixed-dose combination and the dosage of the individual components cannot be adjusted. If a dose reduction of lamivudine, a component of abacavir and lamivudine, is required for patients with creatinine clearance less than 30 mL per min, then the individual components should be used [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Patients with a creatinine clearance between 30 and 49 mL per min receiving abacavir and lamivudine may experience a 1.6- to 3.3-fold higher lamivudine exposure (AUC) than patients with a creatinine clearance ≥50 mL per min. There are no safety data from randomized, controlled trials comparing abacavir and lamivudine to the individual components in patients with a creatinine clearance between 30 and 49 mL per min who received dose-adjusted lamivudine. In the original lamivudine registrational trials in combination with zidovudine, higher lamivudine exposures were associated with higher rates of hematologic toxicities (neutropenia and anemia), although discontinuations due to neutropenia or anemia each occurred in <1% of subjects. Patients with a sustained creatinine clearance between 30 and 49 mL per min who receive abacavir and lamivudine should be monitored for hematologic toxicities. If new or worsening neutropenia or anemia develop, dose adjustment of lamivudine, per lamivudine prescribing information, is recommended. If lamivudine dose adjustment is indicated, abacavir and lamivudine should be discontinued and the individual components should be used to construct the treatment regimen.
Abacavir and lamivudine is a fixed-dose combination and the dosage of the individual components cannot be adjusted. If a dose reduction of abacavir, a component of abacavir and lamivudine, is required for patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A), then the individual components should be used [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic properties of abacavir have not been established in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) or severe (Child-Pugh Class C) hepatic impairment; therefore, abacavir and lamivudine is contraindicated in these patients [see Contraindications (4)].
Abacavir: It is not known whether abacavir can be removed by peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis.
Lamivudine: Because a negligible amount of lamivudine was removed via (4-hour) hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, and automated peritoneal dialysis, it is not known if continuous hemodialysis would provide clinical benefit in a lamivudine overdose event
Abacavir and lamivudine tablets USP contain the following 2 synthetic nucleoside analogues: abacavir (ZIAGEN, also a component of TRIZIVIR®) and lamivudine (also known as EPIVIR or 3TC) with inhibitory activity against HIV-1.
Abacavir and lamivudine tablets USP are for oral administration. Each orange, film-coated tablet contains the active ingredients 600 mg of abacavir as abacavir sulfate and 300 mg of lamivudine, and the inactive ingredients microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, hypromellose, corn starch, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate. The tablets are coated with a film (Opadry orange 14B53805) that is made of hyperomellose 15CP, titanium dioxide, PEG 400, FD&C Yellow No 6, polysorbate 80.
The chemical name of abacavir sulfate is ( 1S,cis) -4-[2-amino-6-(cyclopropylamino)-9H -purin-9-yl]-2-cyclopentene-1-methanol sulfate (salt) (2:1). Abacavir sulfate is the enantiomer with 1S , 4R absolute configuration on the cyclopentene ring. It has a molecular formula of (C14 H18 N6 O)2 •H2 SO4 and a molecular weight of 670.76 g per mol. It has the following structural formula:
In vivo, abacavir sulfate dissociates to its free base, abacavir. Dosages are expressed in terms of abacavir.
The chemical name of lamivudine is (2R,cis)-4-amino-1-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl)-(1H)-pyrimidin-2-one. Lamivudine is the (-)enantiomer of a dideoxy analogue of cytidine. Lamivudine has also been referred to as (-)2′,3′-dideoxy, 3′-thiacytidine. It has a molecular formula of C8 H11 N3 O3 S and a molecular weight of 229.3 g per mol. It has the following structural formula:
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