ATGAM- equine thymocyte immune globulin injection, solution
Pharmacia & Upjohn Company LLC
Antithymocyte globulins can cause anaphylaxis when injected intravenously. Although ATGAM is processed to reduce the level of antibodies that will react to non-T cells, physicians should be prepared for the potential risk of anaphylaxis and monitor patients for signs and symptoms during infusion.
Renal transplant rejection: ATGAM is indicated for the management of allograft rejection in renal transplant patients; when administered with conventional therapy at the time of rejection ATGAM increases the frequency of resolution of the acute rejection episode [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
ATGAM is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe aplastic anemia in patients unsuitable for bone marrow transplantation [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
The usefulness of ATGAM has not been demonstrated in patients with aplastic anemia who are suitable candidates for bone marrow transplantation or in patients with aplastic anemia secondary to neoplastic disease, storage disease, myelofibrosis, Fanconi’s syndrome, or in patients known to have been exposed to myelotoxic agents or radiation.
ATGAM is intended for intravenous use only.
ATGAM is used with concomitant immunosuppressants. During repeat courses of ATGAM, observe patients for signs of allergic reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Renal Allograft Recipients
- Renal transplant rejection: The recommended dose is 10 to 15 mg/kg daily intravenously for 14 days. Additional alternate-day therapy up to a total of 21 doses may be given.
Aplastic Anemia (Moderate to Severe)
The recommended dose is 10 to 20 mg/kg daily intravenously for 8 to 14 days. Additional alternate-day therapy up to a total of 21 doses may be given. Because thrombocytopenia can be associated with the administration of ATGAM, patients receiving it for the treatment of aplastic anemia may need prophylactic platelet transfusions to maintain platelets at clinically acceptable levels.
Geriatric population (≥65 years of age)
Select the dose for an elderly patient with caution, starting at the low end of the dosage range [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
Preparation of Solution
- Visually inspect parenteral drug products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. However, because ATGAM is a gamma globulin product, it can be transparent to slightly opalescent, colorless to faintly pink or brown, and may develop a slight granular or flaky deposit during storage. Do not shake ATGAM (diluted or undiluted) because excessive foaming and/or denaturation of the protein may occur.
- Dilute ATGAM for intravenous infusion in an inverted bottle of sterile vehicle so the undiluted ATGAM does not contact the air inside. Add the total daily dose of ATGAM to the sterile vehicle (see Compatibility and Stability). Do not exceed a concentration of 4 mg of ATGAM per mL. Gently rotate or swirl the diluted solution to effect thorough mixing.
- Diluted ATGAM should be at room temperature before infusion. ATGAM is appropriately administered into a vascular shunt, arterial venous fistula, or a high-flow central vein using an in-line filter with a pore size of 0.2 to 1.0 micron. Use the in-line filter with all infusions of ATGAM to prevent the administration of any insoluble material that may develop in the product during storage. Use high-flow veins to minimize the occurrence of phlebitis and thrombosis. Do not infuse a dose of ATGAM in less than 4 hours. Always keep appropriate resuscitation equipment at the patient’s bedside while ATGAM is being administered. Observe the patient continuously for possible allergic reactions throughout the infusions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Adverse Reactions (6)].
Compatibility and Stability
- Once diluted, ATGAM has been shown to be physically and chemically stable for up to 24 hours at concentrations of up to 4 mg per mL in the following diluents: 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, 5% Dextrose and 0.225% Sodium Chloride Injection, and 5% Dextrose and 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection.
- Do not dilute ATGAM in Dextrose Injection, USP, as low salt concentrations may cause precipitation. Do not use highly acidic infusion solutions since these solutions may contribute to physical instability over time.
- Store diluted ATGAM at room temperature. The diluted solution must be infused within 24 hours (including infusion time).
ATGAM 50 mg/mL concentrate for solution for infusion
Do not administer ATGAM to a patient who has had a systemic reaction (e.g., anaphylactic reaction) during prior administration of ATGAM or any other equine gamma globulin preparation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Serious immune-mediated reactions have been reported with the use of ATGAM. Clinical signs associated with anaphylaxis, other infusion associated reactions, and serum sickness have been reported.
Discontinue ATGAM if anaphylaxis occurs. A systemic reaction such as a generalized rash, tachycardia, dyspnea, hypotension, or anaphylaxis precludes any additional administration of ATGAM.
To identify those at greatest risk of systemic anaphylaxis, skin testing potential recipients is strongly recommended before commencing treatment. A conservative, conventional approach would first employ epicutaneous (prick) testing with undiluted ATGAM. If the subject does not show a wheal ten minutes after pricking, proceed to intradermal testing with 0.02 mL of a 1:1000 v/v (volume/volume) saline dilution of ATGAM with a separate saline control injection of similar volume. Read the result at 10 minutes: a wheal at the ATGAM site 3 or more mm larger in diameter than that at the saline control site (or a positive prick test) suggests clinical sensitivity and an increased possibility of a systemic allergic reaction should the drug be dosed intravenously.
The predictive value of this test has not been proven clinically. Allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis have occurred in patients whose skin test is negative. Also, skin testing done as described above will not predict for later development of serum sickness. In the presence of a locally positive skin test to ATGAM, serious consideration to alternative forms of therapy should be given. The risk to benefit ratio must be weighed. If therapy with ATGAM is deemed appropriate following a locally positive skin test, treatment should be administered in a setting where intensive life support facilities are immediately available and a physician familiar with the treatment of potentially life threatening allergic reactions is in attendance.
Because ATGAM is made from equine and human blood components, it may carry a risk of transmitting infectious agents, e.g., viruses, and, theoretically, the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) agent.
No cases of transmission of viral diseases or CJD have been associated with the use of ATGAM.
All infections suspected by a physician possibly to have been transmitted by this product should be reported by the physician or other healthcare provider to Pfizer, Inc. at 1-800-438-1985.
Monitor patients for concurrent infection. Some studies have suggested an increase in the incidence of cytomegalovirus infection in patients receiving ATGAM.
Do not administer live vaccines to patients about to receive, receiving, or after treatment with ATGAM. Concomitant administration of ATGAM with live virus vaccines carries a potential of uncontrolled viral replication in the immunosuppressed patient. There is insufficient information to fully define the extent of the risk, or the period of time during which the risk exists. If administered, live viruses may interfere with ATGAM treatment.
In patients with aplastic anemia and other hematologic abnormalities who have received ATGAM, abnormal tests of liver function (SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase) and renal function (serum creatinine) have been observed.
The most clinically significant adverse reactions are anaphylaxis, infection, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, arthralgia, edema, bradycardia, and abnormal renal and liver function tests.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
The safety of ATGAM has been evaluated in 367 patients with renal transplant and 109 patients with aplastic anemia.
The renal transplantation and aplastic anemia patients received a similar dosing regimen, and these data were pooled to obtain the frequencies listed in Tables 1 and 2 below.
The most commonly reported adverse reactions (occurring in greater than 10% of patients) are pyrexia, chills, rash, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia and arthralgia.
|Adverse Reaction *, †||ATGAM|
|(N = 476)|
|Abdominal pain upper||2.7|
|Infusion site pain||2.1|
|Arteriovenous fistula thrombosis||1.3|
|Liver function test abnormal||1.0|
|Adverse Reaction *, †||ATGAM|
|(N = 476)|
|Renal function test abnormal||0.6|
|Renal artery thrombosis||0.2|
|Iliac vein occlusion||0.2|
|Toxic epidermal necrolysis||0.2|
DrugInserts.com provides trustworthy package insert and label information about marketed drugs as submitted by manufacturers to the US Food and Drug Administration. Package information is not reviewed or updated separately by DrugInserts.com. Every individual package label entry contains a unique identifier which can be used to secure further details directly from the US National Institutes of Health and/or the FDA.