ELMIRON- pentosan polysulfate sodium capsule, gelatin coated
Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Pentosan polysulfate sodium is a semi-synthetically produced heparin-like macromolecular carbohydrate derivative, which chemically and structurally resembles glycosaminoglycans. It is a white odorless powder, slightly hygroscopic and soluble in water to 50% at pH 6. It has a molecular weight of 4000 to 6000 Dalton with the following structural formula:
ELMIRON® is supplied in white opaque hard gelatin capsules containing 100 mg pentosan polysulfate sodium, microcrystalline cellulose, and magnesium stearate. It also contains pharmaceutical glaze (modified) in SD-45, synthetic black iron oxide, FD&C Blue No. 2 aluminum lake, FD&C Red No. 40 aluminum lake, FD&C Blue No. 1 aluminum lake, D&C Yellow No. 10 aluminum lake, n-butyl alcohol, propylene glycol, SDA-3A alcohol, and titanium dioxide. It is formulated for oral use.
Pentosan polysulfate sodium is a low molecular weight heparin-like compound. It has anticoagulant and fibrinolytic effects. The mechanism of action of pentosan polysulfate sodium in interstitial cystitis is not known.
In a clinical pharmacology study in which healthy female volunteers received a single oral 300 or 450 mg dose of pentosan polysulfate sodium containing radiolabeled drug as a solution under fasted conditions, maximal levels of plasma radioactivity were seen approximately at a median of 2 hours (range 0.6-120 hours) after dosing. Based on urinary excretion of radioactivity, a mean of approximately 6% of a radiolabeled oral dose of pentosan polysulfate sodium is absorbed and reaches the systemic circulation.
In clinical trials, ELMIRON® was administered with water 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals; the effect of food on absorption of pentosan polysulfate sodium is not known.
Preclinical studies with parenterally administered radiolabeled pentosan polysulfate sodium showed distribution to the uroepithelium of the genitourinary tract with lesser amounts found in the liver, spleen, lung, skin, periosteum, and bone marrow. Erythrocyte penetration is low in animals.
The fraction of pentosan polysulfate sodium that is absorbed is metabolized by partial desulfation in the liver and spleen, and by partial depolymerization in the kidney to a large number of metabolites. Both the desulfation and depolymerization can be saturated with continued dosing.
Following administration of an oral solution of a 300 or 450 mg dose of pentosan polysulfate sodium containing radiolabeled drug to groups of healthy subjects, plasma radioactivity declined with mean half-lives of 27 and 20 hours, respectively. A large proportion of the orally administered dose of pentosan polysulfate sodium (mean 84% in the 300 mg group and 58% in the 450 mg group) is excreted in feces as unchanged drug. A mean of 6% of an oral dose is excreted in the urine, mostly as desulfated and depolymerized metabolites. Only a small fraction of the administered dose (mean 0.14%) is recovered as intact drug in urine.
The pharmacokinetics of pentosan polysulfate sodium has not been studied in geriatric patients or in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. See also PRECAUTIONS-Hepatic Insufficiency.
In a study in which healthy subjects received pentosan polysulfate sodium 100 mg capsule or placebo every 8 hours for 7 days, and were titrated with warfarin to an INR of 1.4 to 1.8, the pharmacokinetic parameters of R-warfarin and S-warfarin were similar in the absence and presence of pentosan polysulfate sodium. INR for warfarin + placebo and warfarin + pentosan polysulfate sodium were comparable. See also PRECAUTIONS on the use of ELMIRON® in patients receiving other therapies with anticoagulant effects.
The mechanism by which pentosan polysulfate sodium achieves its effects in patients is unknown. In preliminary clinical models, pentosan polysulfate sodium adhered to the bladder wall mucosal membrane. The drug may act as a buffer to control cell permeability preventing irritating solutes in the urine from reaching the cells.
ELMIRON® was evaluated in two clinical trials for the relief of pain in patients with chronic interstitial cystitis (IC). All patients met the NIH definition of IC based upon the results of cystoscopy, cytology, and biopsy. One blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated 151 patients (145 women, 5 men, 1 unknown) with a mean age of 44 years (range 18 to 81). Approximately equal numbers of patients received either placebo or ELMIRON® 100 mg three times a day for 3 months. Clinical improvement in bladder pain was based upon the patient’s own assessment. In this study, 28/74 (38%) of patients who received ELMIRON® and 13/74 (18%) of patients who received placebo showed greater than 50% improvement in bladder pain (p = 0.005).
A second clinical trial, the physician’s usage study, was a prospectively designed retrospective analysis of 2499 patients who received ELMIRON® 300 mg a day without blinding. Of the 2499 patients, 2220 were women, 254 were men, and 25 were of unknown sex. The patients had a mean age of 47 years and 23% were over 60 years of age. By 3 months, 1307 (52%) of the patients had dropped out or were ineligible for analysis, overall, 1192 (48%) received ELMIRON® for 3 months; 892 (36%) received ELMIRON® for 6 months; and 598 (24%) received ELMIRON® for one year.
Patients had unblinded evaluations every 3 months for the patient’s rating of overall change in pain in comparison to baseline and for the difference calculated in “pain/discomfort” scores. At baseline, pain/discomfort scores for the original 2499 patients were severe or unbearable in 60%, moderate in 33% and mild or none in 7% of patients. The extent of the patients’ pain improvement is shown in Table 1.
At 3 months, 722/2499 (29%) of the patients originally in the study had pain scores that improved by one or two categories. By 6 months, in the 892 patients who continued taking ELMIRON® , an additional 116/2499 (5%) of patients had improved pain scores. After 6 months, the percent of patients who reported the first onset of pain relief was less than 1.5% of patients who originally entered in the study (see Table 2).
|Efficacy Parameter||3 months †||6 months †|
|Patient Rating of Overall Change in Pain (Recollection of difference between current pain and baseline pain)‡||N = 1161Median = 3Mean = 3.44CI: (3.37, 3.51)||N = 724Median = 4Mean = 3.91CI: (3.83, 3.99)|
|Change in Pain/Discomfort Score (Calculated difference in scores at the time point and baseline)§||N = 1440Median = 1Mean = 0.51CI: (0.45, 0.57)||N = 904Median = 1Mean = 0.66CI: (0.61, 0.71)|
|at 3 months †(n = 1192)||at 6 months ‡(n = 892)|
|Considering only the patients who continued treatment||722/1192 (61%)||116/892 (13%)|
|Considering all the patients originally enrolled in the study||722/2499 (29%)||116/2499 (5%)|
ELMIRON Indications and Usage
ELMIRON® (pentosan polysulfate sodium) is indicated for the relief of bladder pain or discomfort associated with interstitial cystitis.
ELMIRON® is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug, structurally related compounds, or excipients.
ELMIRON® is a weak anticoagulant (1/15 the activity of heparin). At a daily dose of 300 mg (n = 128), rectal hemorrhage was reported as an adverse event in 6.3% of patients. Bleeding complications of ecchymosis, epistaxis, and gum hemorrhage have been reported (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Patients undergoing invasive procedures or having signs/symptoms of underlying coagulopathy or other increased risk of bleeding (due to other therapies such as coumarin anticoagulants, heparin, t-PA, streptokinase, high dose aspirin, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) should be evaluated for hemorrhage. Patients with diseases such as aneurysms, thrombocytopenia, hemophilia, gastrointestinal ulcerations, polyps, or diverticula should be carefully evaluated before starting ELMIRON®.
A similar product that was given subcutaneously, sublingually, or intramuscularly (and not initially metabolized by the liver) is associated with delayed immunoallergic thrombocytopenia with symptoms of thrombosis and hemorrhage. Caution should be exercised when using ELMIRON® in patients who have a history of heparin induced thrombocytopenia.
Alopecia is associated with pentosan polysulfate and with heparin products. In clinical trials of ELMIRON® , alopecia began within the first 4 weeks of treatment. Ninety-seven percent (97%) of the cases of alopecia reported were alopecia areata, limited to a single area on the scalp.
ELMIRON® has not been studied in patients with hepatic insufficiency. Because there is evidence of hepatic contribution to the elimination of ELMIRON® , hepatic impairment may have an impact on the pharmacokinetics of ELMIRON®. Caution should be exercised when using ELMIRON® in this patient population.
Mildly (< 2.5 × normal) elevated transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and lactic dehydrogenase occurred in 1.2% of patients. The increases usually appeared 3 to 12 months after the start of ELMIRON® therapy, and were not associated with jaundice or other clinical signs or symptoms. These abnormalities are usually transient, may remain essentially unchanged, or may rarely progress with continued use. Increases in PTT and PT (< 1% for both) or thrombocytopenia (0.2%) were noted.
Patients should take the drug as prescribed, in the dosage prescribed, and no more frequently than prescribed. Patients should be reminded that ELMIRON® has a weak anticoagulant effect. This effect may increase bleeding times.
Pentosan polysulfate sodium did not affect prothrombin time (PT) or partial thromboplastin time (PTT) up to 1200 mg per day in 24 healthy male subjects treated for 8 days. Pentosan polysulfate sodium also inhibits the generation of factor Xa in plasma and inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in human platelet rich plasma ex vivo. (See PRECAUTIONS-Hepatic Insufficiency Section for additional information.)
Carcinogenicity, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long term carcinogenicity studies of ELMIRON® in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice have been conducted. In these studies, ELMIRON® was orally administered once daily via gavage, 5 days per week, for up to 2 years. The dosages administered to mice were 56, 168 or 504 mg/kg. The dosages administered to rats were 14, 42, or 126 mg/kg for males, and 28, 84, or 252 mg/kg for females. The dosages tested were up to 60 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) in rats, and up to 117 times the MRHD in mice, on a mg/kg basis. The results of these studies in rodents showed no clear evidence of drug-related tumorigenesis or carcinogenic risk.
Pentosan polysulfate sodium was not clastogenic or mutagenic when tested in the mouse micronucleus test or the Ames test (S. typhimurium). The effect of pentosan polysulfate sodium on spermatogenesis has not been investigated.
Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies have been performed in mice and rats with intravenous daily doses of 15 mg/kg, and in rabbits with 7.5 mg/kg. These doses are 0.42 and 0.14 times the daily oral human doses of ELMIRON® when normalized to body surface area. These studies did not reveal evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus from ELMIRON®. Direct in vitro bathing of cultured mouse embryos with pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS) at a concentration of 1 mg/mL may cause reversible limb bud abnormalities. Adequate and well-controlled studies have not been performed in pregnant women. Because animal studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used in pregnancy only if clearly needed.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when ELMIRON® is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 16 years have not been established.
ELMIRON® was evaluated in clinical trials in a total of 2627 patients (2343 women, 262 men, 22 unknown) with a mean age of 47 [range 18 to 88 with 581 (22%) over 60 years of age]. Of the 2627 patients, 128 patients were in a 3–month trial and the remaining 2499 patients were in a long-term, unblinded trial.
Deaths occurred in 6/2627 (0.2%) patients who received the drug over a period of 3 to 75 months. The deaths appear to be related to other concurrent illnesses or procedures, except in one patient for whom the cause was not known.
Serious adverse events occurred in 33/2627 (1.3%) patients. Two patients had severe abdominal pain or diarrhea and dehydration that required hospitalization. Because there was not a control group of patients with interstitial cystitis who were concurrently evaluated, it is difficult to determine which events are associated with ELMIRON® and which events are associated with concurrent illness, medicine, or other factors.
|Body System/Adverse Experience||ELMIRON® n = 128||Placebon = 130|
|CNS Overall Number of Patients *||3||5|
|Severe Emotional Lability/Depression||2||1|
|GI Overall Number of Patients *||7||7|
|Skin/Allergic Overall Number of Patients *||2||4|
|Other Overall Number of Patients *||1||3|
|Total Number of Patients Reporting Adverse Events||13||19|
The adverse events described below were reported in an unblinded clinical trial of 2499 interstitial cystitis patients treated with ELMIRON®. Of the original 2499 patients, 1192 (48%) received ELMIRON® for 3 months; 892 (36%) received ELMIRON for 6 months; and 598 (24%) received ELMIRON® for one year, 355 (14%) received ELMIRON® for 2 years, and 145 (6%) for 4 years.
Frequency (1 to 4%): Alopecia (4%), diarrhea (4%), nausea (4%), headache (3%), rash (3%), dyspepsia (2%), abdominal pain (2%), liver function abnormalities (1%), dizziness (1%).
Frequency (≤ 1%):
Digestive: Vomiting, mouth ulcer, colitis, esophagitis, gastritis, flatulence, constipation, anorexia, gum hemorrhage.
Hematologic: Anemia, ecchymosis, increased prothrombin time, increased partial thromboplastin time, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia.
Hypersensitive Reactions: Allergic reaction, photosensitivity.
Respiratory System: Pharyngitis, rhinitis, epistaxis, dyspnea.
Skin and Appendages: Pruritus, urticaria.
Special Senses: Conjunctivitis, tinnitus, optic neuritis, amblyopia, retinal hemorrhage.